Busy supporting a family, he became bored with the Toronto Star, and on January 1, , Hemingway resigned. The Hemingways decided to live abroad for a while, and, following the advice of Sherwood Anderson, they settled in Paris. Anderson gave Hemingway a letter of introduction to Gertrude Stein. She became his mentor and introduced Hemingway to the "Parisian Modern Movement" then ongoing in Montparnasse Quarter. Hemingway's other mentor was Ezra Pound, the founder of imagism.
He was so impressed with Pound that he considered giving him the Nobel Prize gold medal. Hemingway later said of them: Gertrude was always right. A tragedy became an unexpected boon when Hemingway's manuscripts, including A Farewell to Arms were stolen at Gare de Lyon.
In re-writing A Farewell The second version was a great deal less ornate. Hemingway compressed his prose to its bare essentials, related in a nearly journalistic, matter-of-fact style. These features would become essential components of Hemingway's style. The publication of The Sun Also Rises was met with acclaim and success. Hemingway's style rocked the literary scene when it first appeared: It seemed simple on the surface, but was revolutionary in a time when Victorian writing with neo-Gothic decorations still governed the literary world.
He divorced Hadley and married Pauline. Because of his Roman Catholic faith, some conflicts of conscience arose, but these were eventually overcome. Hemingway's father committed suicide using an old Civil War era pistol. He couldn't bear the burden of his incurable illnesses. This suicide was doubtless a great pain to Hemingway, who may have been ashamed by the "cowardice" of the act.
Crosby was a friend from Hemingway's Paris days. Hemingway drew heavily on his own World War 1 experiences for his second major work, A Farewell To Arms, published in The novel details the romance between Frederic Henry, an American soldier and Catherine, a British nurse, ending with her death in labor. By this time, Hemingway was no longer in love with Sister von Kurowsky and had divorced Hadley.
The intense labor pains of his second wife, Pauline, inspired Catherine's labor in the novel. Having published the successful A Farewell to Arms, the years of financial struggle were ending.
Ernest Hemingway was now an author of worldwide renown, happy with Pauline and financially independent. Many of the novel's characters are based on real-life persons, like Helen Ferguson, who inspired Kitty Cannell, and the priest, who was based on Don Giuseppe Bianchi, the priest of the 69th and 70th regiments of the Brigata Ancona.
A mystery is the character Rinaldi, who had already appeared in "In Our Time". A Farewell to Arms has been criticised as a male fantasy through and through, a kind of ambulance driver's wet dream: Lieutenant Henry always seems to know what to do and say.
Women are attracted to him. Italians embrace him as they would a native. Nurse Barkley falls for him so much she thinks of little else. Nobles want to play billiards with him. Henry is always in grave danger, yet he always escapes. The entire novel is built on this kind of fantasy.
Still, it remains an important work. His books sold very well and were approved by critics, but with Hemingway's success came bad behavior. Scott Fitzgerald how to write, and told Allen Tate that there was a fixed number of orgasms a man had. He also claimed Ford Madox Ford was sexually impotent.
This was perhaps a hint of Hemingway's own sexual neurosis. In return, Hemingway himself was criticized--and, some claim, bothered by the criticism. The journal Bookman attacked him as a dirty writer.
McAlmon, the publisher of his first, non-commercial book said, according to Fitzgerald, Hemingway was "a fag and a wife-beater" and that Pauline was a lesbian. She claimed Hemingway had derived his prose style from her own and from Sherwood Anderson's, and that this shameful origin was "yellow". Max Eastman was even more confrontational in his attacks, suggesting that Ernest "come out from behind that false hair on the chest". Eastman would go on to write an essay entitled Bull in the Afternoon, a parody and a satire of Death In the Afternoon , a book dear to Hemingway.
It is worth noting that these attacks on Hemingway's pride and talent were accompanied by the already-mentioned injuries which kept him almost constantly in poor physical shape. From his old stone house--a wedding present from Pauline's uncle--Hemingway fished in the Dry Tortugas waters, went to Sloppy Joe's, Havana's famous bar, and traveled to Spain occasionally, gathering material for Death in the Afternoon and Winner Take Nothing.
Hemingway believed the writer could describe one thing such as Nick Adams fishing in "The Big Two-Hearted River" though an entirely different thing occurs below the surface Nick Adams concentrating on fishing to the extent that he does not have to think about anything else.
About 70 percent of the sentences are simple sentences —a childlike syntax without subordination. Jackson Benson believes Hemingway used autobiographical details as framing devices about life in general—not only about his life.
For example, Benson postulates that Hemingway used his experiences and drew them out with "what if" scenarios: What if I were wounded and made crazy, what would happen if I were sent back to the front?
If you leave out important things or events that you know about, the story is strengthened. If you leave or skip something because you do not know it, the story will be worthless. The test of any story is how very good the stuff that you, not your editors, omit. The simplicity of the prose is deceptive. Hemingway offers a "multi-focal" photographic reality.
His iceberg theory of omission is the foundation on which he builds. The syntax, which lacks subordinating conjunctions , creates static sentences. The photographic " snapshot " style creates a collage of images. Many types of internal punctuation colons, semicolons, dashes, parentheses are omitted in favor of short declarative sentences.
The sentences build on each other, as events build to create a sense of the whole. Multiple strands exist in one story; an "embedded text" bridges to a different angle.
He also uses other cinematic techniques of "cutting" quickly from one scene to the next; or of "splicing" a scene into another. Intentional omissions allow the reader to fill the gap, as though responding to instructions from the author, and create three-dimensional prose.
Hemingway habitually used the word "and" in place of commas. This use of polysyndeton may serve to convey immediacy. Hemingway's polysyndetonic sentence—or in later works his use of subordinate clauses—uses conjunctions to juxtapose startling visions and images.
Benson compares them to haikus. Hemingway thought it would be easy, and pointless, to describe emotions; he sculpted collages of images in order to grasp "the real thing, the sequence of motion and fact which made the emotion and which would be as valid in a year or in ten years or, with luck and if you stated it purely enough, always".
Eliot, James Joyce, and Proust. The popularity of Hemingway's work depends on its themes of love, war, wilderness and loss, all of which are strongly evident in the body of work.
Fiedler believes Hemingway inverts the American literary theme of the evil "Dark Woman" versus the good "Light Woman". Feminist critics attacked Hemingway as "public enemy number one", although more recent re-evaluations of his work "have given new visibility to Hemingway's female characters and their strengths and have revealed his own sensitivity to gender issues, thus casting doubts on the old assumption that his writings were one-sidedly masculine.
The theme of women and death is evident in stories as early as " Indian Camp ". The theme of death permeates Hemingway's work. Young believes the emphasis in "Indian Camp" was not so much on the woman who gives birth or the father who kills himself, but on Nick Adams who witnesses these events as a child, and becomes a "badly scarred and nervous young man". Hemingway sets the events in "Indian Camp" that shape the Adams persona.
Young believes "Indian Camp" holds the "master key" to "what its author was up to for some thirty-five years of his writing career". Those who face death with dignity and courage live an authentic life. Francis Macomber dies happy because the last hours of his life are authentic; the bullfighter in the corrida represents the pinnacle of a life lived with authenticity.
Emasculation, according to Fiedler, is a result of a generation of wounded soldiers; and of a generation in which women such as Brett gained emancipation. This also applies to the minor character, Frances Clyne, Cohn's girlfriend in the beginning in the book. Her character supports the theme not only because the idea was presented early on in the novel but also the impact she had on Cohn in the start of the book while only appearing a small number of times.
In "Alpine Idyll" the "unnaturalness" of skiing in the high country late spring snow is juxtaposed against the "unnaturalness" of the peasant who allowed his wife's dead body to linger too long in the shed during the winter. The skiers and peasant retreat to the valley to the "natural" spring for redemption. Susan Beegel has written that some more recent critics—writing through the lens of a more modern social and cultural context several decades after Hemingway's death, and more than half a century after his novels were first published—have characterized the social era portrayed in his fiction as misogynistic and homophobic.
Hemingway's legacy to American literature is his style: Benson believes the details of Hemingway's life have become a "prime vehicle for exploitation", resulting in a Hemingway industry. Salinger , although Hemingway masked his nature with braggadocio.
In a letter to Hemingway, Salinger claimed their talks "had given him his only hopeful minutes of the entire war" and jokingly "named himself national chairman of the Hemingway Fan Clubs. The extent of Hemingway's influence is seen in the tributes and echoes of his fiction in popular culture. Montblanc offers a Hemingway fountain pen, and a line of Hemingway safari clothes has been created. Entrants are encouraged to submit one "really good page of really bad Hemingway" and winners are flown to Italy to Harry's Bar.
In , Mary Hemingway established the Hemingway Foundation and in the s she donated her husband's papers to the John F. In , a group of Hemingway scholars gathered to assess the donated papers, subsequently forming the Hemingway Society, "committed to supporting and fostering Hemingway scholarship. Almost exactly 35 years after Hemingway's death, on July 1, , his granddaughter Margaux Hemingway died in Santa Monica , California. Three houses associated with Hemingway are listed on the U.
National Register of Historic Places: His boyhood home, in Oak Park, Illinois, is a museum and archive dedicated to Hemingway. Family tree showing Ernest Hemingway's parents, siblings, wives, children and grandchildren. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see Hemingway disambiguation. Ernest, Hadley, and their son Jack "Bumby" in Schruns , Austria, , just months before they separated.
Hemingway and Mary in Africa before the two plane accidents. Hemingway at a fishing camp in His hand and arms are burned from a recent bushfire; his hair was burned in the recent plane crashes. Opening statement of Nobel Prize acceptance speech, [recorded privately by Hemingway after the fact]. If a writer of prose knows enough of what he is writing about he may omit things that he knows and the reader, if the writer is writing truly enough, will have a feeling of those things as strongly as though the writer had stated them.
The dignity of movement of an ice-berg is due to only one-eighth of it being above water. A writer who omits things because he does not know them only makes hollow places in his writing.
In the late summer that year we lived in a house in a village that looked across the river and the plain to the mountains. In the bed of the river there were pebbles and boulders, dry and white in the sun, and the water was clear and swiftly moving and blue in the channels.
Troops went by the house and down the road and the dust they raised powdered the trees. The world breaks everyone and afterward many are strong in the broken places. But those that will not break it kills. It kills the very good and the very gentle and the very brave impartially. If you are none of these you can be sure it will kill you too but there will be no special hurry. Marcelline ; Ursula ; Madelaine ; Carol ; and Leicester See "Hemingway legacy feud 'resolved'".
Retrieved April 26, The Kansas City Star. Retrieved November 30, Retrieved July 11, Reprinted in Bruccoli, Matthew Joseph, ed. Conversations with Ernest Hemingway. Retrieved April 14, Interviewed by Alice Hunt Sokoloff. Archived from the original on Published at Baker, Allie June 28, In this clip, Alice Sokoloff asks Hadley if she remembers how the name 'Papa' began, which was sometime during their years in Paris. Retrieved July 11, — via The Guardian.
Retrieved December 10, Retrieved July 11, — via NYTimes. Hemingway Is Well Remembered". Retrieved July 11, — via LA Times. The New York Times. Retrieved March 7, Death in the Afternoon. What I like about Hemingway". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 1, Retrieved May 14, Archived from the original on October 10, Retrieved October 8, Chicago Literary Hall of Fame. The Writer as Artist. Volume 24, issue 1. The Cambridge Companion to Ernest Hemingway. War was for Hemingway a potent symbol of the world, which he viewed as complex, filled with moral ambiguities , and offering almost unavoidable pain, hurt, and destruction.
He wished to strip his own use of language of inessentials, ridding it of all traces of verbosity, embellishment, and sentimentality. In striving to be as objective and honest as possible, Hemingway hit upon the device of describing a series of actions by using short, simple sentences from which all comment or emotional rhetoric has been eliminated.
These sentences are composed largely of nouns and verbs, have few adjectives and adverbs, and rely on repetition and rhythm for much of their effect. The resulting terse, concentrated prose is concrete and unemotional yet is often resonant and capable of conveying great irony through understatement. A consummately contradictory man, Hemingway achieved a fame surpassed by few, if any, American authors of the 20th century. The virile nature of his writing, which attempted to re-create the exact physical sensations he experienced in wartime, big-game hunting, and bullfighting, in fact masked an aesthetic sensibility of great delicacy.
He was a celebrity long before he reached middle age , but his popularity continues to be validated by serious critical opinion. We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles. You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind. Your contribution may be further edited by our staff, and its publication is subject to our final approval.
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Hemingway helped Ford Madox Ford edit The Transatlantic Review, which published works by Pound, John Dos Passos, Baroness Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven, and Stein, as well as some of Hemingway's own early stories such as "Indian Camp".
Watch video · Nobel Prize winner Ernest Hemingway is seen as one of the great American 20th century novelists, and is known for works like 'A Farewell to Arms' and 'The Old Man and the Sea.' Who Was Ernest.
Ernest Hemingway was born on July 21, , in suburban Oak Park, IL, to Dr. Clarence and Grace Hemingway. Ernest was the second of six children to be raised in the quiet suburban town. His father was a physician, and both parents were devout Christians. Agnes von Kurowsky and Ernest Hemingway, Milan, Italy, Ernest Hemingway Photograph Collection/John F. Kennedy Presidential Library; After recuperating at home, Hemingway renewed his efforts at writing, for a while worked at odd jobs in Chicago, and sailed for France as a foreign correspondent for the Toronto Star.
Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, - July 2, ) was an American author.. He was born in Oak Park, Illinois, and committed suicide in Ketchum, Idaho. Hemingway was one of the 20th century's most important and influential writers, and many details of his own life have become nearly as well-known as has his work. His image was of a stoic, . From the beginning of his writing career in the s, Hemingway's writing style occasioned a great deal of comment and controversy. Basically, a typical Hemingway novel or short story is written in simple, direct, unadorned prose.