Try to organize it in terms of the ideas rather than who did what when. Then Gurglehoff did something-or-other in Next, decide which ideas make sense to present first, second, third, and so forth, and think about how you want to transition between ideas. The introduction will end with a brief overview of your study and, finally, your specific hypotheses.
This hypothesis makes complete sense, given all the other research that was presented. Certainly you want to summarize briefly key articles, though, and point out differences in methods or findings of relevant studies when necessary. DO NOT quote from the articles, instead paraphrase by putting the information in your own words. Be careful about citing your sources see APA manual. Remember that your audience is the broader scientific community, not the other students in your class or your professor.
Therefore, you should assume they have a basic understanding of psychology, but you need to provide them with the complete information necessary for them to understand the research you are presenting. The Method section of an APA-style paper is the most straightforward to write, but requires precision. Your goal is to describe the details of your study in such a way that another researcher could duplicate your methods exactly. Note that in some studies e. Remember to write numbers out when they begin a sentence.
How were the participants recruited? Were they compensated for their time in any way? Carefully describe any stimuli, questionnaires, and so forth. It is unnecessary to mention things such as the paper and pencil used to record the responses, the data recording sheet, the computer that ran the data analysis, the color of the computer, and so forth.
If you included a questionnaire, you should describe it in detail. For instance, note how many items were on the questionnaire, what the response format was e. Provide a sample item or two for your reader. If you have created a new instrument, you should attach it as an Appendix. If you presented participants with various word lists to remember or stimuli to judge, you should describe those in detail here. Use subheadings to separate different types of stimuli if needed.
Include an apparatus section if you used specialized equipment for your study e. What did participants do, and in what order? When you list a control variable e. In other words, what nuisance variable were you controlling for? Your procedure should be as brief and concise as possible.
Did you repeat yourself anywhere? If so, how can you rearrange things to avoid redundancy? You may either write the instructions to the participants verbatim or paraphrase, whichever you deem more appropriate.
In this section, describe how you analyzed the data and what you found. If your data analyses were complex, feel free to break this section down into labeled subsections, perhaps one section for each hypothesis. Include a section for descriptive statistics List what type of analysis or test you conducted to test each hypothesis. Refer to your Statistics textbook for the proper way to report results in APA style.
A t-test, for example, is reported in the following format: Report exact p values to two or three decimal places e.
However, for p-values less than. Following the presentation of all the statistics and numbers, be sure to state the nature of your finding s in words and whether or not they support your hypothesis e. This information can typically be presented in a sentence or two following the numbers within the same paragraph. Also, be sure to include the relevant means and SDs. It may be useful to include a table or figure to represent your results visually. Be sure to refer to these in your paper e.
Remember that you may present a set of findings either as a table or as a figure, but not as both. For instance, if you present a table of means and standard deviations, you do not need to also report these in the text. In the upper left-hand corner, type the title of your paper in all capital letters. Insert the page number in the upper-right hand corner, which should start at page two. The abstract should provide a brief overview of your paper. Discuss the research questions posed, your research methods and your findings.
Keep the abstract to between and words. The abstract marks page two of your APA-formatted paper. Write the body of your paper. Separate content into sections using heading levels; this formatting style guides the reader through the paper with ease.
Center and bold first-level headings. Left-justify second-level headings, which should also be bold. Indent third-level headings, which should be bold and title case, ending in a period. Incorporate in-text citations into your paper.
Every time you use content that is not your original thought, you must cite it, whether you paraphrase it or quote the original source directly. For paraphrased material, include the author's name and the year of publication, separated by a comma, in parenthesis before the end punctuation. For a direct quote, include that same information as well as the page number, preceded by "p.
The Basics In-Text Citations: Basic Rules Reference List: Articles in Periodicals Reference List: Other Print Sources Reference List: Electronic Sources Reference List: Organization and Structure Graduate Writing Workshops: Introductions Graduate Writing Workshops: Literature Reviews Graduate Writing Workshops:
The American Psychological Association (APA) produces a style guide that dictates how college students should write and format their papers. Particularly used by students in the social sciences, this useful guide serves as your one-stop shop for all things research-paper-related.
The American Psychological Association (APA) provides APA format as a way to organize research papers. Required in many academic departments, particularly in the social and behavioral sciences, APA style is best known as a way to document and organize sources used in research papers.
Psychology/Neuroscience How to Write an APA Style Research Paper PDF Version. An APA-style paper includes the following sections: title page, abstract, introduction, method, results, discussion, and references. An APA Research Paper Model Thomas Delancy and Adam Solberg wrote the following research paper for a psychology class. As you review their paper.
Click on the link above in the Media box to download the pdf handout, APA Sample Paper. APA Paper Formatting & Style Guidelines Your teacher may want you to format your paper using APA guidelines. If you were told to create your citations in APA format, your paper should be formatted using the APA guidelines as well.