You probably know that being an older brother doesn't inherently make you good at math. What Kevin has done is made a generalized conclusion: Mine, my friend's and my neighbor's older brother are all good at math. These specific instances are not representative of the entire population of older brothers. Because inductive reasoning is based on specific instances, it can often produce weak and invalid arguments. You can remember inductive reasoning like this: Deductive reasoning is reasoning where true premises develop a true and valid conclusion.
In the case of deductive reasoning, the conclusion must be true if the premises are also true. Deductive reasoning uses general principles to create a specific conclusion. Deductive reasoning is also known as 'top-down reasoning' because it goes from general and works its way down more specific. Get access risk-free for 30 days, just create an account. We know that the conclusion is true because it is based on generalized premises that are true without any exceptions.
As long as the premises are true, then the conclusion will also be true. This probably seems like a simple example; however, you need to see the importance of having a true and unquestionable premise. Kevin has blonde hair. Therefore, Kevin must have blue eyes. It is an untrue conclusion because it is based on an untrue premise, 'all blondes have blue eyes.
Even if the premise 'Kevin has blonde hair' is true, the conclusion cannot be true because it is based on untrue premises. You can remember deductive reasoning like this: It starts with a true premise and deduces a true conclusion. Remember, reasoning is the action of constructing thoughts into a valid argument. Inductive and deductive reasoning both strive to construct a valid argument. Both inductive and deductive reasoning construct sentences, also known as premises to a conclusion.
Check out this chart to compare and contrast deductive reasoning:. First, inductive reasoning is also known as 'bottom-up reasoning,' while deductive reasoning is known as 'top-down reasoning. Next, inductive reasoning uses specific instances to develop a conclusion, while deductive reasoning uses generalized principles. Therefore, inductive reasoning moves from specific instances into a generalized conclusion, while deductive reasoning moves from generalized principles that are known to be true to a true and specific conclusion.
The accuracy of inductive reasoning is questionable. Because inductive reasoning uses specific premises to build a conclusion, the conclusion is probable but not absolutely true.
Deductive reasoning can lead to an absolutely true conclusion if and only if the premises that lead to that conclusion are also true. This is an example of inductive reasoning! It uses specific instances, and we know this is just a probable conclusion because when it hails, I don't get a dent in my car…most of the time.
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This lesson introduces the concept of reasoning and gives you tips and tricks to keeping inductive and deductive reasoning straight. Try it risk-free for 30 days. An error occurred trying to load this video.
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Causal and Analogical Reasoning: Impact on Public Speaking. Are you still watching? Your next lesson will play in 10 seconds. Add to Add to Add to. Want to watch this again later? What Is Inductive Reasoning? Inductive and Deductive Reasoning. The Role of Argument in Critical Thinking. Acquiring Knowledge a Priori or a Posteriori. Denying the Antecedent Fallacy: Presentation Skills in the Workplace. Research Methods in Psychology. Intro to Criminal Justice. Analyzing and Interpreting Literature.
Introduction to World Religions: Cathryn Jackson Cat has taught a variety of subjects, including communications, mathematics, and technology. Inductive and deductive reasoning are often confused. Using Reasoning Andrew and Kevin are studying for their upcoming speech final. Reasoning and Logic First, let's discuss the concept of reasoning. Let's discuss inductive reasoning first. Inductive Reasoning Inductive reasoning is reasoning where the premises support the conclusion.
Now let's talk about deductive reasoning. Deductive Reasoning Deductive reasoning is reasoning where true premises develop a true and valid conclusion. For example, 'All cars have engines. I have a car. Therefore, my car has an engine. Try it risk-free No obligation, cancel anytime. Want to learn more? Select a subject to preview related courses: Lesson Summary Remember, reasoning is the action of constructing thoughts into a valid argument.
Check out this chart to compare and contrast deductive reasoning: Chart comparing and contrasting inductive and deductive reasoning First, inductive reasoning is also known as 'bottom-up reasoning,' while deductive reasoning is known as 'top-down reasoning. So, what do you think? Is Kevin's example better for an inductive or deductive reasoning?
Learning Outcomes After you have finished with this lesson, you should be able to: Define reasoning, valid argument and propositional logic Compare and contrast inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning. Unlock Your Education See for yourself why 30 million people use Study. Become a Member Already a member? Earning College Credit Did you know… We have over college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1, colleges and universities.
To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page Transferring credit to the school of your choice Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Browse Articles By Category Browse an area of study or degree level. Personality Disorder Crime Force: Become a Retail Architect: You are viewing lesson Lesson 6 in chapter 12 of the course:.
Public Speaking 16 chapters lessons 12 flashcard sets. Selecting the Topic, Purpose, and Selecting and Incorporating Visual Reasoning and Rhetorical Proof. Preparing For an Impromptu Browse by Lessons Boomer v. City of Chicago in Deductive research aims to test an existing theory while inductive research aims to generate new theories from observed data.
Deductive research works from the more general to the more specific, and inductive research works from more specific observations to more general theories. Deductive reasoning uses a top-down approach. It typically begins with selecting a pre-existing theory about a certain topic of interest. The theory is then narrowed down into more specific hypotheses that can be tested.
Next, observations are collected to address the hypotheses. This ultimately leads to the ability to test the hypotheses with specific data and confirm or deny the original theory. Inductive reasoning works in the other direction, and it relies heavily on a bottom-up approach. Inductive reasoning begins by detecting patterns and regularities within specific observations and measures.
From these patterns, a tentative hypothesis is formulated that can be explored. Finally, some general conclusions or theories are developed from the results found when testing the hypothesis. Inductive reasoning is more open-ended and exploratory, especially at the beginning.
In logic, we often refer to the two broad methods of reasoning as the deductive and inductive approaches. Deductive reasoning works from the more general to the more specific. Sometimes this is informally called a "top-down" approach. We might begin with thinking up a theory about our topic of interest.
Inductive approaches are generally associated with qualitative research, whilst deductive approaches are more commonly associated with quantitative research. However, there are no set rules and some qualitative studies may have a deductive orientation.
Deductive reasoning is more narrow and is generally used to test or confirm hypotheses. Most social research, however, involves both inductive and deductive reasoning throughout the research process. The scientific norm of logical reasoning provides a two-way bridge between theory and research. Deductive research aims to test an existing theory while inductive research aims to generate new theories from observed data. Deductive research works from the more general to the more specific, and inductive research works from more specific observations to more general theories.
Inductive Approach (Inductive Reasoning) Inductive approach, also known in inductive reasoning, starts with the observations and theories are proposed towards the end of . 3 Research Methods Research Types Deductive Approach Inductive Approach In research, we often refer to the two broad methods of reasoning as the deductive and inductive approaches.