Anxious attachments do not cause later disorders; rather they initiate pathways for psychopathology. Individual disturbance, in this view, begins as relationships are hypothesized to be the forerunners of many major childhood disorders and adult personality disorders as well. Relationship disturbances often precede the manifestation of individual pathology Klaus, Moreover, relationship change has been shown to precede change and to influence the effect of other variables on psychopathology Geiger, and this directly lead to a pathological outcome in a linear manner, yet it is certain that relationship experiences often are a crucial and waning of pathology.
Research have established two basic dimensions of parenting as risk factors for psychopathology: These factors together, and in interaction with other variables, are often especially predictive and at times capable of differentiating various pathological outcomes.
Countless studies supported the view that child rejection, lack of support, and hostility are consistently related to depression Klaus, Klaus, found that parental rejection and power assertive discipline predicted delinquent behaviour. Field, reported that aggressive treatment of children and low parental warmth predicted childhood depression Elliot, Child maltreatment according to Lynch, confirms that parental hostility and harshness is associated with conduct problems, disruptive behaviours disorders, attention problems, anxiety disorders including PTSD and mood disorders.
Divorce, parental disharmony, and family violence all have been consistently associated with child behavioural and emotional problems Brendgen, Such conditions are overlapping and numerous studies have shown children of divorce to have more problems than those in intact families Harris, It is the case that behaviour problems often precede the divorce Fraley, and that parental conflict is consistently found to be a stronger predictor of child maladjustment than marital status.
Family violence has also been found to be associated with child pathology and numerous studies have documented a relation between a history of peer rejection and later maladjustment, both externalizing and internalizing problems Pickover, Research has confirmed that infants with histories of secure attachment with their primary caregivers later are characterized by more effective self-regulation Sroufe, Those with anxious attachment histories have problems of one kind or another.
Insecure attachment systems have been linked to psychiatric disorders, to which a child is especially susceptible after the loss of an attachment figure Fraley, Children with insecure attachment patterns develop the inability to form secure attachments and react in a hostile, rejecting manner with their environment Field, Severe attachment disorders cause the child to get close to an attachment figure, and then pull away before they can be rejected or they deem themselves unworthy in the eyes of the attachment figure Field, Children with secure attachment patterns are capable of forming new attachment relationships while maintaining their current relationship with their parents Weiss, Insecure children focus all of the attention on achieving a better relationship with their parents, therefore making it difficult to form new attachment relationships Weiss, According to attachment theory, interactions with inconsistent, unreliable, or insensitive attachment figures interfere with the development of a secure, stable mental foundation; reduce resilience in coping with stressful life events; and predispose a person to break down psychologically in times of crisis Geiger, Attachment insecurity can therefore be viewed as a general vulnerability to mental disorders, with the particular symptomatology depending on genetic, developmental, and environmental factors Elliot, Brendgen, reviewed hundreds of cross-sectional, longitudinal, and prospective studies of both clinical and non-clinical samples and found that attachment insecurity was common among people with a wide variety of mental disorders, ranging from mild distress to severe personality disorders and even schizophrenia.
Consistently results reveal that attachment insecurities of both the anxious and avoidant varieties are associated with depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD Brendgen, Attachment insecurity is also a key feature of many personality disorders; however the specific kind of attachment insecurity differs across disorders Trowell, Anxious attachment is associated with dependent, histrionic, and borderline disorders, whereas avoidant attachment is associated with schizoid and avoidant disorders Trowell, Another related issue concerning the associations between attachment insecurities and psychopathology is the extent to which attachment insecurities are a sufficient cause of mental disorders, such separation anxiety and pathological grief, in which attachment injuries are the main causes and themes, attachment insecurities are unlikely to be sufficient causes of mental disorders.
Many studies of large community samples have found no association between avoidant attachment and self-report measures of global distress, however, studies that focus on highly stressful events, such as exposure to missile attacks, living in a dangerous neighborhood, or giving birth to a handicapped infant, have indicated that avoidance is related to greater distress and poorer long-term adjustment Allen, It has been noted that the association between attachment insecurity and depression is higher among adults with a childhood history of physical, psychological, or sexual abuse.
People exposed to stressful life events; poverty, physical health problems, and involvement in turbulent romantic relationships during adolescence also strengthen the link between attachment insecurity and psychopathology Harris, Attachment insecurities seem to contribute nonspecifically too many kinds of psychopathology Trowell, however; particular forms of attachment insecurity seem to predispose a person to particular configurations of mental disorders.
If attachment insecurities are risk factors for psychopathology, then the creation, maintenance, or restoration of a sense of attachment security should increase resilience and improve mental health. According to attachment theory, interactions with available and supportive attachment figures impart a sense of safety, trigger positive emotions and provide psychological resources for dealing with problems and adversities Trowell, Takahashi, believed that parents should not be totally held responsible for the way their child develops.
They should be held responsible to a point, because after all, they did give them their genes and they do have some influence. Children rely more on their social group in the shaping of their personality and development of psychopathology Also, Field argue that the mother is not always the primary attachment figure, so it cannot be assumed that she always will be.
The causal links between attachment and psychopathology are also complicated and research findings show that psychological problems can increase attachment insecurity Pickover, Insecure people are likely to be overly self-critical, plagued by self-doubts, or prone to using defenses, such as destructive perfectionism, to counter feelings of worthlessness and hopelessness Allen, According to attachment heory, recurrent failures to obtain support from attachment figure interfere with acquisition of social skills and create serious problems in interpersonal relations Field, Children learn these things from their peers because they want to fit in Harris, If a child is brought up in a crime-ridden area, they will be predisposed to committing these same kinds of crimes Klaus, because of the high rate of peer pressure and because they want to fit in to the group.
Even if the parents try to bring up their children the best way possible, chances are that if they associate with delinquents, they will become ones, but if you take a child headed down the wrong path and move him to new environment, chances are he will get himself on the right track, because he is trying to fit in with a new peer group Harris, Children will not use everything that they learned from their parents.
In some social settings, these lessons may not be correct or embarrassing to use. Children learn how to behave, for the most part, from other people in their social group. Adults do the same; they act more like people in their social groups rather than their parents. Children from the same parents reared in the same home are no more alike than if they were raised in separate homes. Even if parents try to raise two children the same way, they will still behave differently from each other Harris, The model attachment is based on behaviors that occur during momentary separations stressful situations rather than during no stressful situations Elliot, How children and mothers interact together and not stressed shows more of how the attachment model works than how the child acts when the mother leaves and then returns.
Children have attachments to other people other than their mothers, but they do not show this attachment the same way Geiger, The theoretical conceptual model therefore fails to recognise that in certain cultures uncles, brothers and sisters can provide the role of a mother forming several good relations with immediate families which could later help the child.
This theory can misguide practitioners to think that when a child behaves badly it is because of insecure relationships with parents and not putting into considerations other care givers. Last but not least, the attachment theory assumes that secure attachment always leads to positive future relationships and tend not to pay attention on the predictable variables like the death of the attachment figure, divorce and economic factors.
Thus Penn asserts that positive experiences in early life do not always make a child safe from later damage. There is therefore a danger that attachment theory can lead to a conflicting single-dimensional psychodynamic pathology of family model which puts no consideration of the influence of the wider context of probabilities upon parenting Flynn and Rai The cognitive approach seeks to understand the internal thinking and mental processes that underpin human actions as opposed to behavioural approach which focuses upon learning by experience, response to stimulus in the environment.
Keenan , p36 point out that the child is not a passive recipient of information. It is possible that a lack of information can result in unacceptable behaviours that can be punishable.
However, Keenan reported that it is a learning process for the child. This highlights where people are coming from, where they are going and how they live Buss, The works of human mind is significant, it helps to communicate and interact with the world and interpret the world to make meanings and sense out of events and situations to better understand the world in which people live.
Children tend to fail to anticipate and recognise differences in opinion to the situation and perhaps the consequences, hence end up in arguments. As a social worker the ability to identify the source of arguments facilitate an amicable conflict resolution strategy. It is important to realise that children retain any information given by the parents, teachers. In terms of theory, Piaget identified four stages; qualitatively, as a period of development; sensorimotor stage, from birth to 2 year; preoperational, years and formal operational, when the child can think of possible things and develop hypothesis.
However Piaget failed to recognise that children pass the development stages at a different rate. In a real situation, it is not fair to compare the capabilities of children as will bring a lot of anger, frustration and hurt from the failing child. A good parent should be seen encouraging and praise even little achievements. The cognitive perspective also gives consideration of learning styles as learning is thought to progress either verbally or visually and often through a combination of the two.
There is a need to constantly evaluate the needs of each studentand designing new activities that address the evolving educational needs and stages of each student. This can be a challenge, entailing great deal of time and effort.
Conclusion Some similarities can be found when looking at Cognitive and Attachment theories. However, there is one main difference that can be noted between these two theories. Even though both the attachment and cognitive theory contribute a lot to social work practice, it is evident from the discussion above that understanding child development theories such as attachment theory is relevant and of paramount importance.
It gives a bigger picture of what a child should be able to do at a particular age and establishes causes if a child is below expected standard of development. Attachment theory seems to be more feasible and has more practical efficacy to social work practice. It offers explanations to the diversities amongst relationships.
In other words this answers questions like why children may behave differently from other siblings or they may react differently to a similar situation which is explained by the theory of resilience.
One may argue that attachment theory offers avaluable perspective on the development of feelings and behaviour relating to human needs. The theory also deals with the impact of separation and loss and explains their significance to emotional development and subsequent well being Howe Therefore, for social workers whose responsibility is to focus more on children, protect them, observe and assess signs of difficulty, analyse the information and considering how those difficulties might be tackled as recommended and emphasised in Munro review influenced by the death of baby Peter Munro Review , it is of paramount importance to consider and implement these theories in their daily practice.
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The Attachment Theory - Attachment is an emotional bond that is from one person to another. The attachment theory is a psychological, an evolutionary and an ethological theory that is concerned with relationships between humans, specifically between mother and infant.
Attachment Theory essaysTo begin to understand the attachment theory one must first understand and have a clear definition of what attachment is. From my point of view attachment is a lasting, secure and positive bond between a child and a caregiver, a reciprocal relationship. "Attachment, a.
This free Psychology essay on Essay: Bowlby's attachment theory and Paiget's cognitive theory is perfect for Psychology students to use as an example. This free Psychology essay on Essay: Bowlby's attachment theory and Paiget's cognitive theory is perfect for . The Attachment Theory Essays Words | 8 Pages. The Attachment theory is a psychological, ethological and evolutionary theory that gives a descriptive and explanatory framework of understanding interpersonal relationship between human beings.
This essay will analyse how early insecure attachment doom the child to psychopathology in later life. The evaluation will show how attachment insecurity is a major contributor to mental disorders, and an amelioration of psychopathology. Next the essay will evaluate the theories of attachment between a child and their parents/guardians, evaluating Bowlby’s theory of attachment, and using examples from Freud’s ‘cupboard love theories’ and behavioural and psychoanalytic perspectives in comparison to Bowlby.