I'm an 11th grade Stem student, and I would like to research an insect biology entomology for a project using specimens. Do you have some ideas? If you want to use specimens, you should probably work with the types of insects you are most able to collect in your area. Typically, students enjoy researching insects that are either interesting or beautiful.
Butterflies and beetles make particularly good specimens to collect because they are large and plentiful in the spring. You can identify them down to the species and also compare different specimens from the same species. Another exciting project would be to take a specific geographic area and catch as many different insects as you can to then examine the variety of species in that limited area.
You could also compare the species you find in an undisturbed wildlife area with one in a nearby neighborhood that has human activity. Here are some research questions to get you started:. What is the difference in the quantity and variety of insects between an undisturbed area and one disturbed by human activity? As I understand it, many people do not follow the doctor's instructions for taking medicine which makes this an interesting topic. Here are some other ways to word this:. How can we better make people aware of the importance of taking medicines as prescribed?
When animals are slaughtered, what procedures can cause high levels of bacteria contamination? You can do a variety of papers on the topic of skin care, or on the idea of using unusual treatments. Here are some topic examples:. Action research is a seven-step process which is done to help teachers focus, clarify, and quantify their changes during the instructional process.
Which topic you choose depends on the subject you are teaching, but here are some good action research questions:. This article and some of my other articles include topics on "Medicine" or "Health. However, I will add a few here:. How will the new urine test that measures how much our body has aged be able to help us have better health?
What do you think of the research paper topic, "What is the relevance of mathematics to learning physics"?
I think that the word you should focus on would be "importance" rather than "relevance," because I believe the issue behind your question is that people do not believe that mathematics is important in physics.
As a matter of fact, my son an engineering student found that his physics courses in high school actually were the most helpful courses he had to prepare him for his college mathematics courses. Here are some other topic questions related to this one:. Generally, I tell my students to narrow their choice to two or three topic questions that interest them the most.
Then start reading about those topics by doing a Google search to find out just a little bit more about them. Find out what are the possible answers for that question and see how hard it is to get information on that topic. The easiest paper to write will be:. I'm a grade 9 student and preparing for my grade 10 research project. What topic would you suggest? Here are some easier topics for high school students.
I think doing one in "health" is probably the easiest:. Technology and Science Topics: I have a variety of science fair projects for students grades 5 through high school. Here is the article which gives links to many of them: There are many significant technological advances you could write about. Here are a few you might want to research:. Exploratory Topics see Energy and Environment section https: How is studying the microbiome of the planet going to be important to environmental studies?
Can changing their microbiome help people overcome problems of stress, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder? Additionally, I've written several articles on Alzheimer's and dementia that you might want to look at, you can find them by Googling "Alzheimer's" and "VirginiaLynne on HealDove". Can you recommend any research topics in relation to physics, biology, chemistry and earth sciences that can be written about easily, and are suitable for us senior high school students? Any of the topics in my articles are certainly ones that senior high school students could do in a research essay.
What would be a good research question or problem associated with teaching middle school science? In teaching middle school science, you want an experiment that gives important results, but also is not too difficult to do or expensive. My middle school children have done several experiments that I have explained on this website:.
Floral Preservative Analysis after my daughter did this experiment, I saw that someone had done it at the California State Science Fair also: Any question that has a variety of answers can make an interesting research paper in science.
I recently read of some new evidence that is causing scientists to push the boundaries of this idea of the age of our universe. Here are some other topic questions that are similar:. Biology students should choose questions on the life sciences, environmental issues or health issues. You can also look at the genetics topics in this article: For a science competition, you may want to check out some of my science fair articles.
Here is an article that has links to a lot of them: For a science competition like a science fair, I suggest you consider some of the topics below:. How does salt affect germination of seeds?
There are many topics about Biology on this list, but you can also see my Technology List: How can scientists and doctors best counter social media "challenges" like the Tide pod challenge and "cinnamon challenge"? Should federal funding in the U. Sign in or sign up and post using a HubPages Network account. Comments are not for promoting your articles or other sites. Sure Kayla, you can find different topic ideas in my article here: I wanted to write a research about human psychology.
Would you mind to help me? Can you give me some topics that would be helpful to me? Hi Alex, you could research about the ecology of mangroves, how they are being affected by rising seas, or what is being done to preserve them.
Hi Margaux, I have many more articles with research ideas. Some of them involve questions that you can research online and others could be questions you could do with your campus peers. I would suggest that you look carefully through my profile to find the other articles. I'm sure you can find a project that would work for your purposes! I had an experience with true experimental research last year, but then it failed because my sampling method was off. Can you recommend any more topics that I may use?
That can involve students within our campus for data collection. For a science journal, you need to record the date, the information you get from a source and the bibliographical information. Generally, I suggest that students write a short summary of the information they get from a source and then their response to that information, which can include what they learned, what questions the information made you think about, and what you thought was useful or important.
This real helped me I was looking for topics for my research paper for days. Hi Gloria, there are some life science samples in the topics above. Here are a couple more:.
I haven't tried doing science research but I want to try. I am interested on life science. Could you give me some samples? I love all the topics. All of it are interesting. Well, i need something for my research that the output will be tangible or can be use by others.
Thanks for the help. Hi Katie--I'd start with an example of when the physics of motion is helpful, or used, or happens in daily life. To decide which sort of motion to research, I'd go to some physics websites or even Wikipedia and look up the different kinds and see which one you find most interesting, or which one you think you could find the most information about.
Sometimes, I suggest that before choosing a topic that students do some preliminary research, looking for information. If you can't find anything useful in 30 minutes or so, you should probably choose another topic.
I'm doing a page research paper on physics of motion. I have no idea what section of motion I'm going to be discussing, I also need some advice there. Hi Mega Sai, It would be a good idea for you to look at my other articles about how to write research papers and argument papers. Hi Katie--You might want to look at my article on Technology topics because that has information about physical science topics.
If you are working on Creationism, you might want to see my article about "Can Christians believe in Evolution? Marley, you have a good idea about endangered animals. Here are some samples: How do we best save endangered animals? Or you can pick a specific one to talk about.
How do we balance the interests of people and animals on our planet? Does buying up land and setting it aside as a nature refuge work to save endangered animals? Does Ecotourism help save endangered animals? Maybe topics about endangered animals? Those are very interesting to me and other people. Sure Samantha, although I don't know what information is available on that topic.
You can search for "dog communication" in Google Scholar to get some idea of any studies that have already been done. Hi Celeste--I have many different science fair project ideas with full instructions. Look at my profile for ideas. I am at school and I wanna ask. What would be a good project for science research class?
Were having difficulty picking a project for our 'science fair'. It isn't really a science fair though more like a presentation. What good ideas can I use with like space stuff? EunJae, you might want to look at my science experiment about the salinity of water in agriculture. How about in agricultural aspects? Are there any common problems that arising nowadays? I really need help. Hi Lily, I have a lot of different science fair projects I have designed.
The one that seems to suit your idea best is "How does salt water affect seed germination. I have a science fair coming up and I need help for a topic. So I've already put down environmental management as my topic and "destruction" as my heading because I was going to conduct an experiment on something else. But now that won't work and I'm planning on doing a research project.
So do you have any ideas of what I could say that has anything to do with the destruction of the earth? It would help if you would reply ASAP. Hi Annie, you might try one of the following: Do multi media science presentations work more effectively to help students retain information?
Which type of multi media teaching method is most effective for science students? I would like to have a research on teaching science through multimedia,, any suggestions what would be a good topic?
What is the value of space exploration of other planets for humans? I think something on how looking at other planets in the universe helps us learn more about our own would be a good topic.
You've come to the right place. I have over articles on writing and other articles on doing science projects. You can see my articles under my profile or just search for a topic. You can also see other articles written by me linked on the side. I would like some more tips for my students in my class. They all need a project on something.
Hi Mini--I will add some microbiology topics. Thanks for the suggestion. Here are a couple of ideas taken from currently important research: What is the recent update on the Corynebacterium species and their clinical significance?
What are the best ways for medical personnel to handle the growing problem of antibacterial resistance? Can older techniques like anti-microbial peptides be used effectively to treat bacteria?
I am currently doing my bachelor's in microbiology. Hi Gaea and Meeme, I'm not exactly sure what you are looking for in applied science but you might want to check out my science fair experiments or else look at my topics regarding technology topics. Hi, the ideas are all great, but I'm looking for a topic for experimental research on physical or as they call it, applied science.
Can you help me with that? Hi Purple--You might want to look at my article about Technology Topics. That one includes more links to articles. You might also look at my article on " Current Events" because the bottom section talks about medical and health topics. Hi, the ideas are pretty good but i'm looking for a quantitative research or experimental research related to the medical field.
I have seen some from the given topics but i'm hoping there's more. Hi JJ-Try looking at my article on technology topics because that has a lot of links to help you out. If you are actually doing a science experiment and not just a research paper, I have a lot of different step-by-step experiments too.
You can find them by going to my profile page. Are there easy topics that a secondary student could handle. Your ideas are good but its hard. Hi Anne--You might want to look at my article on Technology ideas. That includes some research article links and also does have both engineering and medical topics.
Just wanted to say that this website is very helpful in our PR 1, but my classmate and I are still confused on what research topic to tackle. Could you please suggest some topics for the both of us? We'd also greatly appreciate suggestions coming from the fellow readers. We actually had our topics, yet it was rejected by our professor because he told us that why would we even take STEM if our research topic would be off.
So, we're struggling now in changing our topic. Thank you very much! Hi Jessica--If you want to build something, you might want to consider engineering topics. I have some articles about building a bomb detecting robot. You might also want to research how to build nanobots. I am in research science and I have no idea what I want to do.
I'm interested in building something. Hi Jonah--Look out for a new article I'm writing on easy topics. Most of these are aimed at college students but I'm discovering that there are a lot of younger students looking for topics too.
Another place to get some inspiration right now is my technology topics article, which gives a lot of links to research articles that you can use. That makes it easier because you get a head start on your research. These research ideas are all good. If you have any easier research topic pls do tell - still science related. Hi ALX--If you are going to do a science project rather than a research paper, you might want to look up my science fair ideas. I have over 10 proven science fair projects for ages from kindergarten through secondary school.
If you are doing a paper and want a project to research, you might want to try looking at my article Technology topics for essay because that one has a lot of links to articles you can use. Hello, I am going to enter a science competition but still can't find an interesting topic.
These topics are good but hard for me to understand because I am only in secondary school first year. Can anyone please help me??? Hi Maleni--Here are some topics that are very current: How can chemistry contribute to the development of new types of batteries? What are the ways biomacromolecules or synthetic molecules can be used in imaging or for new medical therapies?
Hello can anyone help me with a interesting topic for my chemistry class? I have to do a paper bases on anything that has to do with chemistry! Here are some alternative research questions on the topic of euthanasia: Do euthanasia tend to happen more to poor people? Should an individual be able to consider the burden of medical costs on their family when making a decision about euthanasia?
What is the cause of most people wanting to choose euthanasia? Is there a moral difference between passive euthanasia vs.
What are other research questions that involve euthanasia? I am really interested in writing about this, I'm just not sure how to form a scientific question about it for my research paper. That is interesting and current and you should be able to find plenty to write about.
What is the future of nanotechnology? Or How nanotechnology will improve our lives. Are radiography departments prepared for morbidly obese patients?
Another along this line would be: How has the increase in morbid obesity changed the medical field or changed radiography? Hi Jafta, I would suggest that you look up some forensic study journals. That will give you an idea of the types of articles and studies that are done in forensic investigations.
Getting a couple of sources on the same topic will put you ahead in writing your paper. To write a topic for research, you need to find something that people are debating in forensic studies. Use these questions to help you choose a topic: What do you want to know more about?
What is the most important unsolved problem? What can I research that will help me understand this job better? Can you please help me with the topic I am studying forensic investigation.
The question is Based on your field of study, propose a suitable research topic for your study? Hi Manelisi--If you are looking for research topics in a particular field or area, you will often get the best ideas by searching for "current trends" or "current research" in that field. You can also look at the most recent journal articles in top journals of that field.
If you don't find a topic here, you might want to look at: Is the paleo diet eating mostly meat really the way prehistoric people lived? Is it the optimal diet for humans? Is Europe's opposition to genetically modified crops about science or economics? Can molecular biological research of rare genetic disorders help provide keys to understanding cancer and other illnesses?
Is behavioral epigenetics true? If so, how should we apply this idea? What is the molecular evidence that humans once interbred with Neanderthals? With other now-extinct species? As men age, do they pass on genetic abnormalities to their children? Is personalized medicine based on our own genome the wave of the future? Is stem cell treatment really promising? Will researchers really be able to use genetics to help us live both longer and healthier? Physics and Astronomy Research Ideas How old is the universe?
How important is it to explore our solar system? Is space exploration really necessary? What is dark energy? What do we really know about the universe we live in? What happened in the "Big Bang? Was there ever life on Mars? Why is Pluto no longer a planet?
What caused the Astroid Belt? What has the International Space Station discovered that is most important? Is it realistic that people can live on another planet? How will private space flight companies change the future of space exploration?
Should the United States return to the moon and try to go to other planets? It has been claimed that going into space is important for scientific development. What scientific breakthroughs have come about through the space programs? What is the future of commercial space flight? What is the likelihood that a comet will strike the earth? What is the best way to detect and stop this? How can we solve the problem of "space junk"? How have meteorites changed our view of the Universe? Is it likely that there is life on other planets?
What would it take for a planet to have life? What is "Dark Matter" and why is it important? What are black holes? How has the Hubble Space Telescope changed the way we look at the Universe? What is Higgs Boson? Will it destroy the Universe? How do sunspots affect us on earth? How will private space flight companies change the development of space resources? What is the likelihood that the Earth would be struck by a large asteroid or comet like the one believed to have killed off the dinosaurs?
What can we do about it? Should humans really make the effort to find a way to live in space or on other planets? After you have chosen your topic, you can get started writing using my other articles: How to Write a Thesis Sentence. Writing Great Topic Sentences. Writing a Research Outline. Step-by-Step Argument Paper Writing.
What is the role DNA polymerases plan in maintaining the integrity of genetic information? What are the possibilities of targeting DNA polmerases with pharmaceutical agents in cancer therapies? What are the top 5 chemistry careers? What is the best way to capture and use carbon dioxide?
What are the chemicals that trigger allergies? How can chemists help prevent allergies? What is the best chemical process of microbrewing beer? How can atom thick graphene be used to create new technologies? What are the latest developments in the chemistry of adhesives? What are the challenges for developing environmentally-friendly plastics? Are chemicals from pharmaceuticals ending up in our water supply? How important is biocomputing and big data to the future of chemical research?
How can the bioluminescence GFP from jellyfish be used in medical applications? How can metal oxides improve cell phones? Chemists are working on making plastics from non-petroleum products. What are some of the most promising experiements? How can the hardest crystal, boron nitride, be best used in practical applications?
What is the possibility that spun sugar strands could be useful for medical purposes? How are clouds formed? What is the connection between chemicals in seawater and cloud formation? How can research on hydrophobic-hydrophilic surfaces help create chemical coatings and how would these be best used? What is the sugar chemistry of making candy? What are Biomacromolecules and why are they important?
What are important trends in medicinal chemistry research in India? Why is nuclear fusion always just out of reach? Will it ever become a useful technology? Environment and Ecology Is it a good idea that the U. Can endangered areas and animals be saved by helping local people develop alternative economies like raising tropical fish or ecotourism? Which of the current science fiction movies is the most plausible? Why do birds have such beautifully colored feathers?
How are insects being used as models for miniature robots? Why do animals hibernate? Should disposable products be banned or limited? What is Green building? How helpful is it to the environment and is it worth the extra cost? Should alternative energy companies get government subsidies? Is offshore drilling safe? Is recycling metal really important?? How important is climate change legislation? Is hydraulic fracking going to destroy important ecosystems? Nanotechnology Research How can microelectronics be used to help people with chronic ailments?
What developments in nanotechnology are currently being made for medical applications? What is the effect of nanotechnology on research and development of medical technologies? Can microelectronics inside of contact lenses help diabetics control their blood sugar? What is nanotechnology for medical use? How can "smart clothes" be used to help medical patients? How can nanotechnology be used to treat cancer patients? Do the benefits of nanotechnology for medical uses outweigh the risks?
What are the risks of developing nanotechnology in medicine? How can nanotechnology be used to work with DNA? Should we use nanobots to produce and deliver drugs to human patients? Are nanofibers the answer to repairing spinal cord and brain injuries? Should we use nanotechnology to feed ourselves? What are the challenges of nanomaterials and nano designs?
How could nanomedicine be used to better treat patients in remote regions or the developing world? Can nanomedicine potentially extend the human lifespan? Will nanotechnologies make it possible for people to live in outer space? How can nanotechnologies help us clean up toxic waste? How should nanomaterial be regulated?
How can nanotechnology improve diagnostic testing in patients? Can covering surfaces with nanoparticles improve airplanes, houses, and other structures?
Is nanotechnology a viable commercial idea? Should we invest in further research and development? Is the desktop nanofabrication tool a viable option for low-cost, easy nanotechnology? Can nanomaterials be used to reduce CO2 emissions? Nanotechnology Sources to Help You Research Nanomedicine Journal is an open access journal that includes abstracts of current research as well as many free articles.
Institute of Nanotechnology includes articles on the most recent developments as well as links to information on nanotechnology and reports of commercial viability. PhysOrg links to many bio and medicine nanotechnology articles. Huge Potential But What Are the Risks has science reviews which cover a variety of new nanotechnologies and their potential for helping people, with a discussion of the possible risks.
Google has developed "smart glasses" which are being tested, but the company is also interested in using microcomputers to help diabetics monitor blood sugar levels. Smart Clothes for Medical Uses: NPR interview on Science Friday with a scientist developing nanofibers which could be used to produce "smart clothes" to monitor patients with cancer and other medical conditions. Healthcare Is stem cell research ethical? Is health care ready for the routine screening of patient DNA?
What is a chimera and how could it help stem cell research? What are the potential benefits and risks of stem cell research? Are microbes that create chemicals and antibiotics going to help us prevent infections? What is the best treatment for leukemia? How will wearable medical devices transform healthcare? Can scientists cure diseases by building new organs?
What is gene therapy? What causes skin cancer? What is the best strategy for people to avoid getting cancer? Which cancers are we closest to finding cures for? What has been the impact of colonoscopy testing on colon cancer rates?
Why do so many women get breast cancer? Why is malaria such a difficult disease to eliminate? Will global warming make tropical diseases like malaria and dengue fever travel north? What is the best strategy to slow the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases? Why doesn't the flu vaccine work all the time? How likely is it that a pandemic will arise that will kill large numbers of people in the world?
Is it possible to predict the next pandemic? How well do childhood vaccines prevent diseases? What is the West Nile virus? Why do people get epilepsy? How can it best be treated? Do doctors rely too much on expensive medical imaging technologies? Do microbes cause Alzheimer's disease? Can memory loss and dementia be prevented? How do cells protect the body from disease? Does Chinese traditional medicine work better than Western medicine in some cases? What is the best indicator of an increased risk of heart disease?
Are annual doctor's check-ups really necessary? Are they really the best way to help people stay healthy? Why are some diseases that we thought we had eradicated like the measles or whooping cough returning to infect people?
Is it beneficial or harmful for wild animals to have interactions with people? Robotics and Computer Science Topics Can robots be used to help kill invasive species? How can robotic exosuits be used in industry and business for training and increasing production? How are robots going to improve medicine? A robot can now perform a routine colonoscopy. What is the future of surgical robots? How will self-driving cars change the way people live?
Will delivery drones be bringing us our pizza and mail? Is using drones for warfare a good or bad idea? How can research on improving the artificial intelligence in robots teach us more about ourselves? Is it always bad? Can using system like bitcom help protect identity theft? What is the future of computing and artificial intelligence? What are the important issues about privacy and big data?
How is bioinformatics transforming biology? How can mining big data in the healthcare industry make us healthier? How can computer science programs and games like Eyewire help us understand the brain?
Health Science Research Sources Science: A premier publication in the field, Science has peer-reviewed research as well as information that is curated by experts. Publishes peer-reviewed articles on biology, environment, health and physical sciences. Nature is an authoritative source for current information. If articles are difficult to read, you can search for the same information in one of the more popular journals online.
Los Angeles Times Science and Health: This online science news source offers readable articles on many of the most current science topics. You can find good ideas for topics here as well as research for your own paper.
If you are required to get peer-reviewed articles, then you can search here for easy-to-read summaries and then look up the original articles online or in the library. You can search this site for articles on science topics, including health science. This site often gives you links to original articles and government reports that can help you do your research. Contains over , articles on a variety of health topics. This site gives concise explanations of current research along with links to original papers or other information to help you further your research ideas.
You can email or print the articles on this site and find out if they are from academic publications. Current Medical Research Questions What technologies are in development to help people who are paralyzed? How does sleep deprivation affect health? Should sugar be regulated like a drug? What are the benefits and disadvantages of individual genome profiling? What is the Human Connectome Project and how will mapping of the human brain contribute to scientific knowledge? Are some cancers caused by genes?
Who are the Denisovans and how does their discovery alter our view of human evolution? Can we develop an anti-cancer vaccine? What can we do about crops which absorb toxins, such as the recent discovery of arsenic-tainted rice? What is the ideal weight for longevity? What is the connection between diet and lifespan? Are we really in a post-antibiotic era as the CDC recently announced?
What does this mean? Should scientific publication and grant systems be changed to give private citizens and younger scientists a voice if they have good ideas? Which diet choice is better: How can polio be eradicated? Why has the disease resurfaced? How important are the bacteria living in your bowels? How close are computers to mimicking the human brain? How can video games be used to solve scientific problems? Do cell phones or microwaves cause cancer?
Psychology and Neurobiology Issues Is autism a kind of brain damage? How can we help autistic savants become productive members of society? Why do we sleep? How much sleep do we really need? How is sleep related to memory? How did human speech develop? Are there clues we can find in researching primate social interactions? How do we remember things? How reliable are our memories in recalling how things really happened? What is the importance of time and space in brain development and disease?
Why do mothers protect their young and even risk their lives? How does our brain really work? What is mental illness? Is there something we can learn from these different sorts of mental states?
How does language reveal stress responses? Your Science Interest Which of the following areas of science research do you find most interesting? Maybe I'll write an article on your idea! Any of the topics on this Which question about cancer could I consider as possible topics for a research paper?
Here are some interesting cancer research topics: What is the best new treatment for pancreatic cancer? Is gene therapy a good choice for cancer patients? Are there any holistic or alternative therapies that help cancer patients?
What is the best diet and exercise plan to prevent cancer? Clinical research—such as testing a hypertension medicine in mice genetically engineered to have Marfan syndrome, for instance—applies itself directly to improving the human condition. Translational research—often described as 'bench-to-bedside' studies—accelerates the discovery of new treatments directed at the basic mechanisms of disorder and disease and hastens the time when effective treatments become a reality.
Marfan syndrome is just one excellent example of how finding the genes responsible for a disease, and discovering what regulates them, can lead to therapy. Stay up-to-date with the latest research findings from the Institute for Basic Biomedical Sciences. View our phone directory or find a patient care location. Search the Health Library Get the facts on diseases, conditions, tests and procedures.
Find Research Faculty Enter the last name, specialty or keyword for your search below. Apply for Admission M. Collaborate with colleagues Find a faculty member Find events Access the latest research news See a map of campus. Contact Information View our phone directory or find a patient care location. Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences. Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine. Arrhythmia , cardiomyopathy, heart failure, preventative cardiology and vascular topics research.
Simply put, biology involves the study of living organisms, from single-celled organisms to multiple-celled plants, animals and humans. Some basic biology class topics might include cellular structure and functions, evolution and natural selection, heredity and .
Biology research paper topics can be daunting. There are hundreds or possibly thousands of subjects to write about such as genetics, cancer and microbiology. Within these subjects are various topics.
Some Interesting Biology Research Paper Topic Ideas. When choosing a research paper topic, it’s advised to choose a topic of your interest. However, it is also quite important to know what kind of people are going to read it. Here are some interesting topics that you may want to research on. Biology A (9thth grade students) The first semester usually includes study of cell biology, reproduction, genetics, evolution, and plant and animal classifications. Students should be able to: Use methods of qualitative and quantitative observation. Describe the general structures, functions, biochemistry and diversity of cells.
Jan 19, · Look under "Molecular biology and genetics topics," "biochemistry" or "ecology for topics which relate to biology or the life sciences. Biology refers to "study of life" so anything which is alive is included under that eroticlesbian.mls: Huge List of Biology Experiment Ideas for High School, Experiments Topics, Models Ideas for Kids and also for Middle school, Elementary School for class 5th Grade,6th,7th,8th,9th 10th,11th, 12th Grade and High School,CBSE, ISC Class 12 and MSC and College Students.