The way computer programs share data and functionality with other computer programs. Many say that the future of the Internet lies in APIs because they help distribute and combine content. Facebook, Twitter and Google Maps all have APIs that allow other websites or computer programs to use their underlying tools. A set of instructions or procedures used in order to accomplish a task, such as creating search results in Google.
In the context of search, algorithms are used to provide the most relevant results first based on those instructions. Usually used in the context of Android phone, Android is a free and open source operating system developed by Google that powers a variety of mobile phones from different manufacturers and carriers.
It is a rival of the iPhone platform. Expect to see competitors to the iPad running a version of Android.
Short for application, a program that runs inside another service. Many mobile phones allow apps to be downloaded, leading to a burgeoning economy for modestly priced software. The term can also refer to a program or tool that can be used within a website. Apps generally are built using software toolkits provided by the underlying service, whether it is iPhone or Facebook. A bundle of technologies and techniques that allow a Web page to do things quietly in the background without reloading the whole page.
One of the first big uses of AJAX was Gmail, which allowed it to be much more responsive than other Web email at the time. A syndication format for machine-readable Web feeds that is usually accessible via a URL. One of the first widespread Web-native publishing formats, generally characterized by reverse chronological ordering, rapid response, linking, and robust commenting. While originally perceived to be light on reporting and heavy on commentary, a number of blogs are now thoroughly reported, and legacy media organizations have also launched various blogs.
A simple, free blogging platform created by Pyra Labs, which was sold to Google in It was one of the first mass blogging services and is credited with popularizing the format. Unlike WordPress, it is not open source. Many Blogger sites are hosted at blogspot. An umbrella term describing media technologies that create a strong sense of engagement among residents through news and information.
An increasingly popular computing model in which information and software are provided on demand from over the Internet rather than staying on local computers. Cloud computing is appealing because companies can reduce the amount they spend on their own computer servers and software but can also quickly and easily expand as the company grows.
Examples of cloud computing applications include Google Docs and Yahoo Mail. Amazon offers two cloud computing services: EC2, which many start-ups now use as a cheap way to launch their products, and S3, an online storage system many companies use for cheap storage.
Software designed to organize large amounts of dynamic material for a website, usually consisting of at least templates and a database. It is generally synonymous with online publishing system. The material can include documents, photos or videos. While the first generation of content management systems were custom and proprietary, in recent years there has been a surge in free open-source systems such as Drupal, WordPress and Joomla.
Content management systems are sometimes built custom from scratch with frameworks such as Ruby on Rails or Django. A pricing model in which the advertiser is charged for an ad based on how many users take a specific, pre-defined action—such as buying a product from an online store—based on viewing an ad.
Also sometimes referred to as Cost Per Acquisition. A pricing model in which the advertiser is charged for an ad based on how many users click it.
Cost per one thousand often views. Much of online advertising: A flexible set of copyright licenses that allow content creators to specify which rights they reserve and which they waive regarding their work that is supposed to codify collaborative spirit of the Internet.
There are six main Creative Commons licenses based on four conditions that creators can choose to apply: The least restrictive of the licenses is Attribution, which grants anyone, from an individual to a large company, the right to distribute, display, or otherwise make use of the work so long as the creator is credited. First released in December by the nonprofit Creative Commons organization, which was inspired by the open source GNU GPL license, the licenses are now used on an estimated million works worldwide.
The glossary you are reading is released under a Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike license in an effort to encourage wide distribution and contribution. Also see open source. Instructions used to describe the look and formatting for documents, usually HTML, so that the presentation is separate from the actual content of the document itself. That look and feel is controlled by the CSS.
An extremely simple data format that stores information in a text file. CSV is popular precisely because it can be easily read by many different applications, including spreadsheets, word processors, programming text editors and Web browsers. Thus it is a common way for people, including governments, to make their data available.
Each row of data is represented by a line of text. Many applications support the use of alternative column delimiters the pipe character, , is popular.
A growing area of content creation in which information is represented graphically and often interactively. This can be used for subjects as diverse as an analysis of a speech by the president and the popularity of baby names over time. While it has deep roots in academia, data visualization has begun to emerge on content sites as a way to handle the masses of data that are being made public, often by government.
An increasingly popular type of database. In contrast to relational databases, which rigidly require information to be stored in pre-defined tables, document-oriented databases are more free-flowing and flexible. Document-oriented databases retrieve information more quickly, but store it less efficiently.
The same document-oriented database might let you store the information for an article headline, byline, data, content, miscellaneous or for a photo file, photographer, date, cutline. MongoDB is a popular open source document-oriented database. A popular content management system known for a vibrant open-source community that creates diverse and robust extensions. Drupal is very powerful, but it is somewhat difficult to use for simple tasks when compared to WordPress. Drupal provides options to create a static website, a multi-user blog, an Internet forum or a community website for user-generated content.
A Web framework that is popular among news and information sites, in part due to its origin at Lawrence Journal-World in Kansas. It is written in Python, a sophisticated dynamic language.
Major projects built in Django include Disqus, Everyblock. News applications teams, including those at the Chicago Tribune and Los Angeles Times , use the framework to present large data sets online in easily accessible ways. A term meaning to place a specific piece of content from one Web page inside of another one. This is a common way for video content to be spread around the Internet and is increasingly being used for interactive components. A computing power rental system by Amazon that has become popular among technology companies because it is much cheaper than maintaining your own computer servers.
Users can host their applications on EC2 and pay depending on usage. EC2 is an example of cloud computing. Also see cloud computing. A technology from Facebook that allows a reader to log into a third-party website with their Facebook account, rather than creating a new profile for that website.
Launched in , Facebook Connect was one of the first examples of Facebook extending itself into a platform for the entire Web. There is not a way to actively add content to the page, unlike with Facebook groups. But because they are autogenerated, based on likes, they can quickly build gigantic memberships. Cooking, for example, has over 2 million fans. These pages are a bit confusing, and Facebook is still working on the kinks.
A Facebook profile for a specific person, product, company or organization, usually administered by official representatives. Once a page has more than 25 fans, it can claim a short form URL, such as facebook. Facebook community and fan pages are strong players in ongoing efforts to bring content to people where they already are, instead of requiring them to come to the content.
Facebook groups are analogous to offline clubs. Unlike Facebook fan pages, groups do not have to be administered by official representatives. But as long as it has fewer than 5, members, Facebook groups are allowed to mass-message all their members. A profile page tied to a single individual. What information is controlled in theory by the individual. However, because there is a 5,person limit to friends, some celebrities have fan pages instead.
As of , individuals can choose a username, which makes their page available at facebook. A proprietary platform owned by Adobe Systems that allows for drag-and-drop animations, program interactivity, and dynamic displays for the Web. The language used, ActionScript, is owned by Adobe; this contrasts with many other popular programming languages that are open source. Many claim that Flash players are unstable and inefficient, slowing down Web pages and crashing operating systems.
Apple has not allowed Adobe to create a Flash player for the iPhone operating system, which has created a feud between the two companies. HTML5 is emerging as an open alternative to Flash. Watch Django and Ruby creators discuss the merits of their frameworks on DjangoProject. Despite a relatively modest user base at the beginning, Foursquare quickly attracted a lot of attention for its potential for marketing and customer brand loyalty.
A piece of information that goes with content and contains geographically based information. Commonly used on photo sites such as Flickr or in conjunction with user-generated content, to show where a photo, video or article came from. There has been some discussion of its increasing relevance with geographically connected social networking sites, such as Foursquare. Twitter has implemented geotagging, and Facebook has announced plans to do so.
The ads are selected based on the content of the page. Ad revenue is split between Google and the publisher in an undisclosed proportion, generally believed to be two-thirds to the publisher. The search terms, called keywords, are purchased by advertisers; availability of a given keyword is based in part on an auction system, and in part on the responsiveness of the audience. The service can integrate with other Google services, as well as feed into Twitter.
Despite an initial burst of publicity, Google Buzz has not gained tremendous traction. It attracted criticism when Google automatically and publicly connected users with people they had e-mailed most often in the past, making private information unexpectedly available.
Google released enhanced privacy controls after the controversy. A playback option allows new users to get up to speed on projects and creates an environment that is both real-time and asynchronous. Despite a massive amount of attention, Google Wave has not gotten much traction.
Words or phrases in microblog messages preceded by the symbol — for example, whitehouse or egypt. Users of services such as Twitter can search for such metatags to see what is being said on particular subjects. The dominant formatting language used on the World Wide Web to publish text, images and other elements.
Invented by Tim Berners Lee in the early s, HTML uses pairs of opening and closing tags also known as elements , such as ; each pair assigns meaning to the text that appears between them. The upcoming, powerful standard of Hypertext Markup Language, which has added advanced interactive features, such as allowing video to be embedded on a Web page.
It is gaining in popularity compared to proprietary standards, like Adobe Flash, because it is an open standard and does not require third-party plugins. The latest releases of most browsers support HTML5 to varying degrees. An HTML tag that allows for one Web page to be wholly included inside another; it is a popular way to create embeddable interactive features.
Many security breaches have been designed using iframes. It features a multitouch screen and comes in 3G and wi-fi versions. Upon its announcement in January , many noted its name was reminiscent of feminine hygiene products. Essentially an iPhone without the phone. Slimmer than the iPhone, the iPod touch can play music and run iPhone apps.
An umbrella term to describe the centralized media institutions that were dominant during the second half of the 20th century, including: In the context of programming, this contains code that can be accessed for software and Web development, enabling one to perform common tasks without writing new code every time. Editorial An article in a publication expressing the opinion of its editors or publishers.
In newspapers, it typically appears on the editorial page and is edited by the editorial page editor. Freedom of Information A law that makes it easier to obtain information from federal agencies and access to government records. The time element often is important. See also soft news. Usually found in a feature story, or a story that is not written in inverted pyramid form.
Courts have given journalists more latitude in reporting on public figures. A story about a disaster, for example, may have a sidebar that tells what happened to a single victim. The time element usually is not important.
See also hard news. The term often is used to describe persons, as opposed to documents. Also called a second-day story. Comment by Nombuso — March 26, 8: Comment by caswell mthombeni — March 5, RSS feed for comments on this post. You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Twitter account. You are commenting using your Facebook account.
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Head on down to the comments and let’s make the murky world of broadcast journalism terms a little clearer! Learn more about the School of Broadcast Journalism at .
feature Story emphasizing the human or entertaining aspects of a situation. A news story or other material differentiated from straight news. ﬁle.
Journalism, like any profession, has its own set of terms, its own lingo, that any working reporter must know in order to understand what people are talking about in a newsroom. Here then are 10 terms that you should know. Journalism, like any profession, has its own language and specialist words which practitioners need to know. The following glossary contains more than definitions of terms about journalism and the media - including new media - making it probably the biggest, most extensive journalism and media glossary available free online.
Citizen journalism - Term used to describe the reporting of news events by members of the public most commonly on blogs and social networking websites. Other terms include participatory journalism and networked journalism though it should not be confused with civic journalism, which is practiced by professional journalists. Terms needed for journalism students. Learn with flashcards, games, and more — for free.