Department of Agriculture imported Danish Landrace in and cross bred them with other purebred hogs. It evolved by mixing bloodlines of horses brought to the New World. Its genetics include Arab, Turk and Barb breeds. Selected stallions and mares were crossed with horses brought to Colonial America from England and Ireland in the early s. Colonists prized the breed for its short-distance racing abilities. It is the horse most associated with Western ranching and rodeo. Plants have 22 types of amino acids.
Angus - An English breed of beef cattle introduced to the United States from its native Scotland in Sometimes called Aberdeen Angus.
The breed is prized for its ease of calving and mothering ability, and for its lean meat. The American Angus Association records more cattle each year than any other beef breed association, making it the largest beef breed registry association in the world. Appaloosa - The famous spotted horse of the Nez Perce Indians. It wasn't until that the Appaloosa was recognized with a breed registry. Arabian - Horse of the Bedouin, developed anciently on the Arabian peninsula.
Sometimes used as a synonym for donkey, but this is not technically accurate. Ayrshire - A breed of dairy cattle that originated in the County of Ayr in Scotland , prior to They may be any shade of red or white.
The first Ayrshires arrived in America about Beefmasters were recognized by the U. Department of Agriculture as a pure breed in The registry is maintained by Beefmaster Breeders United. Belgian Draft Horse - By far the most common draft horse in America.
There are more Belgians than all other draft breeds combined. They are the direct descendants of the "Great Horse" of medieval times, which carried armored knights into battle. They were known in Europe in the time of Caesar. According to the Guinness Book of World Records, the largest horse in the world was a Belgian stallion. Belted Galloway - A beef breed notable for its unique appearance of a broad white belt, or sheet, around the middle.
The rest of the animal may be black, red or dun color. Breeders often refer to the breed as "Belties. The breed is known for its exceptionally lean and flavorful meat and a double coat of hair that allows it to survive in very harsh climates. Berkshire - A breed of hogs that originated in Berks, England. It was introduced to the United States in The American Berkshire Association registers the breed.
Although the term, first coined in , originally described large-scale production of pigs fed on sugar beets, the term has evolved to describe genetic engineering. Usage isn't uniform, but scientists commonly use the terms genetic engineering, bioengineering, genetic modification, genetic engineering and biotechnology interchangeably.
The technology is used in plants, animals, viruses, and bacteria. It is most commonly obtained by breeding Black Angus and Hereford cattle. Brangus - A distinct breed of beef cattle developed by crossing registered Brahman and Angus cattle. The earliest crosses were made in Brown Swiss - Breed of dairy cattle that originated in Eastern Switzerland.
Comes in various shades of brown. Bulls are breeding stock in beef and dairy operations. In the United States a bushel equals 4 pecks, or In the United States , the bushel is the common measure of wheat and some other crops.
A bushel of apples is 42 pounds. Cat skinner - A person who drives or operates a Caterpillar tractor. Water is delivered to the center of a field by a deeply buried pipe, which attaches to main pipe that is supported on wheeled towers and pivots up to degrees to irrigate the field. Center pivots may irrigate up to acres. They are popular because of their labor savings. One person can manage operations of several center pivots. They include wheat, rice, barley, oats, corn maize , rye and triticale.
Charolais - A beef breed that originated in France , perhaps as early as the 9th century A. It entered the United States from Mexico in Charollais - A breed of sheep that originated in the same region of France as the Charolais cattle. Their development began in the early 's. The breed's primary use is as a sire to increase the muscling and growth rate of the lambs.
Cheviot - A breed of sheep that originated on the Cheviot Hills along the border of England and Scotland. Its history traces at least to It was introduced to the United States in , from Scotland.
Cheviot are distinctive white-faced sheep with wool-free face and legs. They have black muzzles and feet. It originally was called the Chester County White. The breed traces to importation of a white boar from England some time between The boar was referred to as a Bedforshire. It was crossed with local breeds to produce the ancestors of today's Chester White, which is registered by the Chester White Swine Registry.
Chianina - The Chianina pronounced kee-a-nee-na is one of the oldest breeds of cattle. It provided models for Roman sculptures. Chianina originated in Italy where it was used primarily as draft animals until the advent of modern mechanized farming. These large, gentle animals then became important for their meat-producing qualities.
The breed was first introduced into the United States via semen imports in Its main use in the U. It is registered by the American Chianina Association. Clydesdale - A breed of heavy draft horse developed in Scotland by the farmers of Lanarkshire, through which the River Clyde flows. It was bred to meet the needs of agriculture, commerce for the Lanarkshire coalfields of Lanarkshire and for all types of heavy freight on the streets of Glasgow.
The Clydesdale Breeders of the United States was formed in Although not the most popular work horse in America , the Clydesdale is the best known. It is the breed that pulls the famous Budweiser beer wagon. Columbia - A breed of sheep developed by the United States Department of Agriculture to replace cross breeding on the range. In , long wool breed rams were crossed with Rambouillet ewes to produce large ewes that yielded more pounds of wool and more pounds of lamb.
A primitive horse-drawn combine was introduced in Michigan in Use grew slowly until the s when tractor-drawn models became available. It was created to stabilize, support, and protect agricultural prices and farm income through loans, purchases, payments, and other operations. They are different from exempt haulers who are truckers not regulated by the Interstate Commerce Commission. Conservation Reserve Program - A federal program under which producers voluntarily retire environmentally sensitive crop land for 10 to 15 years in return for annual rental payments through which the government shares the cost of establishing approved conservation practices.
They aren't opened until they reach their receiver. This technology controls gases in the atmosphere of cold storage facilities in a way that greatly prolongs the life of fruit, such as apples.
In recent years some states have adopted other nomenclature, such as county faculty. DDT - dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane, a chlorinated hydrocarbon used as an insecticide. Devon - The Devon is one of the oldest beef breeds in existence. Some authorities believe the origin of the breed to be prehistoric.
These red cattle may have contributed to the Hereford and other British breeds. Originally a dual-purpose milk and meat breed, the Devon has evolved over the last half century as a beef-type breed.
Devons originated in southwestern England where Romans noted them in 55 B. Devons made their way to the United States in , only years after Columbus. Devons are red, varying in shade from a rich deep red to a light red or chestnut. Usually refers to federal funds administered through the U.
This technology conserves water and eliminates soil erosion from irrigation water runoff. Also called trickle irrigation. Apparently first came to the United States in There are both horned and polled Dorsets.
In some seeds, the endosperm persists as a storage tissue and is used to nourish the germinating seedling. They go by various names in different states. In Washington they are formally called county faculty because they hold faculty appointments at Washington State University. The most common reasons in modern agriculture are to conserve moisture for future use and for weed control. In extremely dry areas, for instance, wheat is grown every other year. These terms also avoid the need to distinguish between farmers and ranchers, which terms aren't interchangeable.
Punctuation is a frequently debated issue among writers. There is a great deal of inconsistency. On Web pages one often finds farmers both with and without the apostrophe on the same page. The Associated Press Stylebook doesn't directly answer the question; but a reading of the "possessives" entry p suggests the proper news style would be to place an apostrophe after the s in farmers.
Examples include corn, and sorghum. Most barley is grown for this purpose. But barley also is grown to make malt or beer, in which case it is classified as a small grain.
Modern usage may vary, but generally refers to small grains, hay and cotton. Flats may have single or multiple layers. It's mission is to protect consumers by ensuring that meat, poultry, and egg products are safe, wholesome, and accurately labeled.
Carrier may be a truck, barge, ship or airplane. Furrows serve different purposes, one of which is to contain a rill of water for surface irrigation. Gelbvieh - A breed of beef cattle that originated in Baveria , Germany.
Registration is with the American Gelbvieh Association. Hackney - There are two hackney breeds, one a horse, the other a pony. Both are bred for their brilliant, high-stepping performance in harness. The Hackney horse developed in Great Britain in the early 18th Century as a stylish, spirited light horse favored by English sportsmen and aristocrats as a carriage horse.
The Hackney pony was developed by crossing the Hackney horse with small, spirited Welsh Ponies. Ninety-five percent of all Hackneys in the United States are ponies. Its task is to reach agreement on a joint text. If an agreed joint text is forthcoming, it is the subject of a third reading in each institution.
Once the two institutions have reached agreement on a common text, it is said to be adopted by the Council and the European Parliament. It is then published in the Official Journal of the European Union and becomes law. If the two institutions cannot agree on a common text, the procedure ends and the Commission's proposal is rejected.
The Parliament had only the right to express its opinion on a proposal. Now, no proposal can become law without the agreement of both the European Parliament and the Council. Putting the European Parliament — which is directly elected by European citizens — at the same level of responsibility as the Council, clearly strengthens the democratic aspect of the Common Agricultural Policy and ensures it continues to respond to the needs of citizens.
The ordinary legislative procedure was used for the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy. This was the first time that this procedure was used for a reform of this policy. Organic production is an overall system of farm management and food production that combines best environmental practices, a high level of biodiversity, the preservation of natural resources, the application of high animal welfare standards and a production method in line with the preference of certain consumers for products produced using natural substances and processes.
There are nine outermost regions of the European Union: Each of them is an integral part of a member state and therefore part of the European Union. Because of their geographical remoteness and their island status except for French Guiana, which is a continental region within the Amazon forest , a number of special arrangements regarding the common agricultural policy apply to them.
In the dispute settlement procedure of the World Trade Organisation , an independent body is established by the dispute settlement body , consisting of three experts panelists to examine and issue recommendations on a particular dispute in the light of WTO provisions. These were introduced by the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy to implement the single payment scheme SPS. Payment entitlements were distributed to farmers based on historical data at regional or individual farmer level.
Following the reform, to qualify for a single payment, a farmer had to activate the payment entitlements that he or she held together with the same number of eligible agricultural hectares. The reform replaced these payment entitlements with newly-established payment entitlements under the basic payment scheme. By derogation, some member states respecting certain conditions may keep existing payment entitlements. In order to avoid the abandonment of land in areas with natural constraints or other specific constraints , member states or regions may grant an additional amount of direct payment for farmers in these areas.
The reform of the Common Agricultural Policy stipulated that young farmers farmers starting-up their farming activity and not older than 40 in the year of application eligible for the basic payment may receive a payment under the young farmers scheme for a maximum period of five years. Article 13 of the WTO agreement on agriculture which protected agricultural subsidies from being challenged under the other WTO agreements, in particular under the General agreement on tariffs and trade and the subsidies agreement.
The clause expired at the end of A performance framework and reserve for the European structural and investment funds is provided for in the common provisions regulation. The reserve is be attributed on the basis of the performance framework defined for each programme with a view to monitoring progress towards objectives and targets over the course of the programming period.
The Commission will undertake a performance review in co-operation with the member states in In order to ensure that the European Union budget is used efficiently and is not wasted, where there is evidence that a priority has seriously failed to achieve its milestones, the Commission may suspend payments or, at the end of the programming period, may apply financial corrections.
In the context of the Common Agricultural Policy, the term permanent crops means non-rotational crops other than permanent grassland and permanent pastures which occupy the land for five years or more and which yield repeated harvests, including nurseries and short rotation coppice.
This support is provided in the form of direct payments and market measures and is entirely financed from the European Agricultural Guarantee Fund. The second pillar is the support provided for the development of rural areas. This support takes the form of Rural Development programmes and is co-financed from the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development. This aims at strengthening the synergies and weeding out inconsistencies between the non-aid policies of the European Union and its development objectives.
The main incentive has been the knowledge that limiting policy incoherence and strengthening synergies among external and internal policies will enhance the overall efficiency of development cooperation and will also lead to increased development benefits in developing countries. The concept of policy coherence for development stems from the conclusions of a Council meeting of The Lisbon Treaty Article has strengthened legal basis of this principle by requiring it to be mainstreamed into all related policies.
This is a scheme that supports the incomes of farmers in the outermost regions of the European Union and the supply of essential products to those regions.
The scheme seeks to compensate farmers for their extra costs of production and marketing due to the small size of these territories, their difficult topography and climate, and the long distance to European markets. This is a principle endorsed by the United Nations and which entered into European Union law in the early s.
Subsequently, the principle also incorporates the idea that, in the case of an unknown but potentially harmful action, the burden of proof that the action is not harmful falls upon those taking the action. The principle justifies a higher level of protection, notably than that agreed in the context of international negotiations.
The principle applies mainly to the fields of food safety and environmental and consumer protection, and should be considered within a structured approach to risk analysis. It is particularly relevant to risk management. The precautionary principle is mentioned Art. However, the European Commission has developed guidelines for its application and has stated that the European Union, like all other members of the World Trade Organisation , has the right to establish the level of environmental and consumer protection that it deems appropriate.
The precautionary principle covers cases where the scientific evidence is insufficient, inconclusive or uncertain and preliminary scientific evaluation indicates that there are reasonable grounds for concern that the potentially dangerous effects of a good, a product or a practice on the environment or on the health of plants, animals and humans may be inconsistent with the level of protection chosen by a particular country.
The term premium usually referred to a payment per head of livestock ewe premium, special beef premium, suckler cow premium. Since the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy, premia have generally been decoupled from production and incorporated into the single payment scheme SPS. Also known as market volatility , this refers to the fluctuation of prices of agricultural goods in the market. If farmers do not invest in their farms, there is a risk that farm productivity and efficiency will fall.
Some products have a seasonal cycle, meaning that in certain periods there is a relative over-production, while later in the year there is a relative shortage. Certain external factors may increase the seasonal peak beyond normal expectations, thus potentially causing the market price to fall. In such cases it may be decided to temporarily support producers of products, such as olive oil and butter, regarding the cost of private storage. A legally-constituted group of farmers and growers.
Producer organisations assist in the distribution and marketing of products. They also promote a higher quality of products and encourage their members to adopt good environmental practices. Producer organisations have been legally encouraged since in the fruit and vegetable sector, and since in the milk sector see milk package.
Since the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy, producer organisations are now encouraged in all sectors. Producer organisations can group themselves into associations of producer organisations and into inter-branch organisations. These are limitations on the amount of a specific product that can be placed on the market. They apply to processing companies producing sugar, isoglucose and inulin syrup. This is the promotion food and beverages produced by farmers in the European Union.
Products are promoted both within the European Union itself and in third countries. To this end the European Union, its member states and the professional organisations co-finance and jointly organise promotion actions, information campaigns and trade missions. Agricultural product quality policy. Goods and services which benefit the general public but for which the producer is not remunerated through the market.
Farmers provide a number of public goods such as the sound management of soil and water, the maintenance of landscape features and food security. One of the market management instruments under the single common market organisation and which functions as a safety net is public intervention. When the market price of a product reaches the reference threshold , the European Union may decide to buy a quantity of the product from the market and place it temporarily in storage.
Later, when prices are recovering, the product may be sold in the internal market, sold in special destinations or exported. In order to manage the market of a particular farm product, the European Union may remove some of the product from the market and place it temporarily in storage. The number of hectares for which this payment could be allocated will be limited to 30 hectares or the average farm size in member states if the latter is more than 30 hectares.
The single common market organisation provides for a set of instruments which enables the European Union to stabilise prices for agricultural goods on its internal markets. Among these instruments are public intervention and private storage aid. Whether these instruments are applied depends on the actual market price level which is compared to a legally-fixed price level by sector.
This price level is the reference threshold. Due to changes in the aspirations of citizens, new social and economic conditions and the emergence of novel technologies, it is necessary, from time to time, to adjust and update the Common Agricultural Policy. This is the process of reform. There have been several reforms of the policy.
The first major reform was designed by Commissioner Ray MacSharry in In , during the tenure of Commissioner Franz Fischler, specific direct payment schemes were incorporated into a single payment scheme, direct payments were decoupled from production and a number of new mechanisms were introduced such as cross-compliance , modulation , degressivity , the financial discipline mechanism , farm advisory services and good agricultural and environmental conditions.
In , during the tenure of Commissioner Mariann Fischer Boel, there was an adjustment of the Common Agricultural Policy the "health check". The functioning of the single payment scheme was simplified, the decoupling of direct payments was extended, the scope of cross-compliance was adjusted and set-aside was definitively abolished. Specific payments were introduced to assist young farmers. A reform generally proceeds by the following steps: The action plan describes the simplification projects that have been initiated.
The Rural Development measures are defined in the Rural Development regulation and represent the main instruments to implement the Rural Development programmes. For the programming period — , the number of measures has been reduced compared to the previous programming period. Furthermore, there is now more flexibility in how the measures are used.
This increases their effectiveness in meeting specific priorities. A range of different types of support is offered by the menu of Rural Development measures to address the many needs of the rural areas of the European Union. Member states have to programme these measures to ensure that they help to achieve one or more European Union priorities for Rural Development and to meet the needs of rural areas.
Member states have a certain discretion regarding the final design of these measures. The support granted under each measure is shared between the European Union and the member state concerned. This arrangement is known as co-financing. In line with this strategy, Rural Development aims to achieve three strategic objectives competitiveness, natural resources and balanced territorial development.
These long-term objectives are interpreted in terms of priorities of which six are defined in the Rural Development regulation, as follows:. The Rural Development programmes define multi-annual strategies in selected programming areas, based on a thorough analysis of their socio-economic and environmental needs.
The strategies implemented under each Rural Development programme aim at meeting the European Union priorities for Rural Development through a number of selected measures. The programmes also lay down the conditions that potential beneficiaries have to meet if they are to benefit from Rural Development funds. The reform of the Common Agricultural Policy furthered the market orientation of farming. At the same time, it acknowledged that a market that is more open means that farmers face a greater degree of market volatility , with strong disturbances in terms of price and quantities.
Therefore, mechanisms are available which provide for a safety net to help the farming sector to survive bad years, to ensure food security over time and to secure the viability of the sector in the long run.
The stability and long-run security provided by safety nets also benefit the upstream sector, processing industry, retailers and consumers. Public storage and private storage aid are two examples of such mechanisms. The aim of safety net mechanisms is to help farmers. They are not meant to be a permanent form of market intervention and influence the production decisions of farmers.
These are measures to protect human, animal and plant life or health and to ensure that food is safe to eat. The final act of the WTO agreement on agriculture contains the agreement on the application of sanitary and phytosanitary measures. It applies to all sanitary and phytosanitary measures that may have a direct or indirect impact on international trade.
This is the list of bound tariffs and commitments of a member country of the World Trade Organisation regarding its domestic support and export subsidies. Aid provided by the European Union to support the distribution of fruit and vegetables to children in nursery, primary and secondary schools. The objective is to introduce balanced diets and good eating habits. Aid provided by the European Union to supply milk and certain milk products to children in nursery, primary and secondary schools.
This is a biofuel derived from plant material that does not have an alternative use as food cf. Second-generation biofuels are derived - through the fermentation of cellulose - from a variety of materials including waste biomass, wood and the stalks of cereals. They are also derived from crops grown especially for fermentation into biofuels, such as miscanthus species.
This was the temporary removal of farmland from production. Set-aside was introduced in the late s with the objective of reducing the amount of food produced by farmers. The rationale at the time was to control supply: Given the subsequent positive development of agricultural markets, set aside was temporarily suspended in and abolished definitively in with the health check reform of the Common Agricultural Policy.
A supply chain involving a limited number of economic operators, committed to co-operation, local economic development, and close geographical and social relations between producers, processors and consumers. This refers to the continuous work by the European Union to simplify both its policies and the mechanisms to implement them.
Simplification involves reducing the administrative burden in existing legislation and preventing its potential occurrence in the future. Simplification may also refer to the modification of legal frameworks and texts in order to make the legislation as such more comprehensible. Simplifications are carried out on a continuous basis and are included in the rolling simplification action plan of the Directorate-General for Agriculture and Rural Development. It provides indications of the resulting reduction of the administrative burden of farmers and national administrations.
Due to limited administrative capacities and the absence of historical data, new member states i. The single area payment scheme provides a flat-rate decoupled area payment paid for eligible agricultural land and replaces almost all payments granted in other than new member states.
However, the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy permitted member states applying the single area payment scheme in to apply it until At present, the single area payment scheme is applied by all new member states except Slovenia, Malta and Croatia.
A common market organisation is a set of measures that enables the European Union to monitor and manage, either directly or indirectly via producer organisations supported by operational programmes , the markets of agricultural products. The rules are laid down in the regulation on the single common market organisation. The purpose of market management is to stabilise markets in terms of quantity offered and purchased and the price at which transactions take place and thus to ensure, on the one hand, that farmers do not suffer from excessively low prices and, on the other, that consumers have a secure supply of food at reasonable prices.
With a view to make things simpler, the European Union has amalgamated these 21 common market organisations into a single set, known as the single common market organisation. This was introduced by the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy and is the scheme by which farmers receive a decoupled single payment. Prior to the reform, a farmer could receive a number of specific direct payments, each one associated with a particular line of production of crop and livestock cereals, milk, beef The reform incorporated these specific direct payments into a single payment and decoupled this payment from the production of crops and livestock.
The reform has continued this orientation, the single payment scheme having been transformed into a basic payment scheme. This is a simplified direct payment scheme granting a payment, the level of which is determined by the member state but not exceeding EUR, to those farmers who decide to participate in the scheme.
The small farmers scheme includes simplified administrative procedures. Participating farmers are exempt from greening and cross-compliance sanctions and controls. Provisions in the WTO agreements that allow developing countries to benefit from exceptions or special treatment.
These include longer periods to phase in obligations, more lenient obligations, etc. As a general rule, member states are not allowed to grant aid to undertakings. The notion of aid is very wide and basically covers everything by which an undertaking would receive an economic advantage, whether it consists of a straightforward financial aid or indirect support such as tax advantages, better conditions for the purchase or lease of land, giving a loan or a guarantee for taking out a loan from a bank at better conditions than normal market rates, etc.
In principle, payments made under European Union rules are also considered as state aid if the member state exercises any discretion in the matter. In the context of the Common Agricultural Policy this is the case with regard to payments under Rural Development. In contrast, the member states do not exercise any discretion regarding direct payments because European Union law predetermines the eligibility criteria.
Therefore, direct payments are not considered as state aid. The legislator the European Parliament and the Council may decide that the state aid rules do not apply to financial assistance made available by member states, and has done so, for example, with regard to Rural Development payments made in respect of agricultural activities, i. But even if there is a state aid, it is possible that the member state may be allowed to grant the aid because the Treaty provides for a series of derogations by virtue of which state aid may be declared compatible with the internal market by the Commission.
To assess this compatibility, the Commission has defined different sets of rules. For those cases where state aid rules apply in principle, member states may grant payments if they are of a low value de minimis rule , if they have been authorised by the Commission following a notification by the member state concerned, or if the state aid is in accordance with pre-determined block exemptions.
In cases where a member state provided state aid to its farmers without the prior authorisation by the Commission and which, in the view of the Commission, is incompatible with the internal market, the farmers may be obliged to pay it back, with interest, to the member state see compatible state aid , illegal state aid , incompatible state aid , unlawful state aid.
In the context of state aid, the Commission may receive notifications from the member states indicating their intention to grant aid. Government-controlled trading agencies used by several WTO member countries to exclusively market imported or domestic products in international or domestic markets.
State trading enterprises which export agricultural goods are part of the Doha development agenda agricultural negotiations. The statutory management requirements form part of cross-compliance and are laid down in a number of European Union directives and regulations. They concern public health, animal and plant health, identification and registration of animals, environment and animal welfare. These requirements apply independently of cross compliance which only establishes the link between the full payment and the respect of such requirements.
Its most far-reaching decision was to support agriculture by guaranteeing that the prices farmers received for their products when they sold them in the market would not fall below a floor price a mechanism known as price support or market support. Limitations on the quantities of sugar that beet processors can sell on the market for food purposes.
Sugar quotas were introduced in immediately at the start of the common market organisation for sugar. Quotas are fixed for each member state or region by the Council and Parliament, while national authorities allocate the quota to the individual companies. The sugar companies sign pre-sowing delivery contracts with farmers to produce the beet necessary to fill the quota. Quotas are fixed below the level of consumption and the gap is mainly filled by imports both quota-free and duty-free from developing countries.
The quantity of out-of-quota sugar that is not used can be carried forward to the next marketing year, counting as the first quota production of the year. Sugar quotas will end on 30 September In the context of aid for Rural Development, the support rate is the share of the total eligible costs of an operation project, contract, etc. This term means meeting the needs of present generations without jeopardising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs — in other words, a better quality of life for everyone, now and in the future.
It offers a vision of progress that integrates immediate and longer-term objectives, local and global action, and regards social, economic and environmental issues as inseparable and interdependent components of human progress. Firstly it means the list, book or database of charges that are imposed by a government on goods when these are imported or exported. Secondly it means the charge itself. Amounts transferred do not have to be co-financed by member states. Alternatively, member states may make a transfer in the opposite direction i.
Introduced for the first time in in those new member states applying the single area payment scheme and receiving a full level of direct payments. Member states applying the single area payment scheme are allowed to continue to grant national aids under the same conditions that previously applied to complementary national direct payments but subject to gradual reduction. In the context of the Common Agricultural Policy, this is an initiative taken by the European Union which requires both it and its member states to make available to the public as much information as possible regarding the implementation of the policy and its beneficiaries whilst at the same time ensuring an adequate level of protection of personal data.
The legal foundation of the European Union takes the form of international treaties concluded between its member states. This was followed by two further treaties which were concluded in in Rome.
The Treaty of Paris expired in Thereafter, the European Union replaced the European Community. This is an unofficial term that encompasses illegal state aid and incompatible state aid.
The 8th round of multilateral trade negotiations known as the Uruguay Round, conducted within the framework of the General agreement on tariffs and trade, was launched in Punta del Este, Uruguay, in It was concluded eight years later in Marrakesh in , with the signature of the final act of the Uruguay Round.
This adopted a number of individual agreements and decisions, including the WTO agreement on agriculture , as well as the provisions that set up the World Trade Organisation. This was established on January 1, , as a result of the Uruguay Round. It replaced the General agreement on tariffs and trade as the legal and institutional foundation of the multilateral trading system of its member countries. The World Trade Organisation provides the principal contractual obligations determining how governments frame and implement domestic legislation and regulations regarding international trade.
It is also the platform for trade negotiations and adjudication among its members. As of April , countries belong to it - i. One of the 29 individual legal texts of the World Trade Organisation which was negotiated during the Uruguay Round of the General agreement on tariffs and trade.
It entered into force with the establishment of the World Trade Organisation on January 1, The agreement provides for reductions in tariffs, export subsidies and trade-distorting domestic support to farmers, while having regard to the situation of developing countries. A person who is 40 years of age or less at the moment of submitting an application for aid, who possesses adequate occupational skills and competence and who is setting up for the first time in farming as head of the holding.
Skip to main content. European Commission Agriculture and rural development Glossary Agriculture and rural development. Animals only eat grasses from start to finish. Grassfed with Grain Supplement: Animals are raised on pasture, and a controlled amount of grain is eventually introduced into their diet.
This is a genetically engineered hormone that is injected into dairy cows to increase their milk production. Cows injected with rBGH have shorter life spans and are much more likely to suffer from udder infections. RBGH has been banned in Canada, the European Union and elsewhere because of inadequate testing and some evidence that it leads to cancer. Heirloom vegetables are vegetables whose seeds have been saved for generations and passed down.
By contrast, seeds from hybrid plants are not true to type and so are not good for saving. This requires that the grower purchase new seeds every year. Hybrids have been bred for specific qualities but have not been genetically modified. GMO plants have been genetically engineered. This can be done by combining DNA of different plant varieties or by introducing genes from other species, such as fish. The farm raises rare and endangered breeds of livestock to reintroduce genetic diversity and prevent extinction.
Integrated Pest Management I. The farm uses a pest-management strategy that includes a combination of biological, cultural, and chemical tools to reduce crop damage from insects, diseases and weeds. Pesticides are used minimally and judiciously as only one part of the pest management strategy. The term is not regulated for use on non-meat products. Animals are raised without added growth hormones.
Agriculture Terms & Definitions Adapted from the USDA Acid Soil: A soil with an acid reaction, a pH less than Acre: A parcel of land, containing 4, square yards or 43, square feet. Agriculture: The utilization of biological processes on farms to produce food and other products useful and necessary to man.
The Glossary is a collection of definitions of agricultural terms developed in conjunction with the creation of the NAL Agricultural Thesaurus. The edition contains 5, definitions ranging across agriculture and its many ancillary subjects.
The Glossary is a collection of definitions of agricultural terms developed in conjunction with the creation of the NAL Agricultural Thesaurus. The edition contains 5, terms ranging across agriculture and its many ancillary subjects. Understanding the basic terms associated with agriculture-related topics will give you the knowledge base to conduct solid interviews and identify key trends. To get you started, here’s a list of keywords to familiarize yourself with: Agricultural Adjustment Act of This set up the system of.
Agricultural Glossary. These terms and their definitions are intended to provide some clarity for both producers and consumers in an area that is often confusing, given the growing number of terms used to describe farms and their products, and the lack of legal definitions for many terms. Pages in category "Agricultural terminology" The following 51 pages are in this category, out of 51 total. This list may not reflect recent changes ().