Penny pinching came into vogue, and conspicuous spending was out. Costco and Walmart experienced heightened sales of their low-cost Kirkland Signature and Great Value brands as consumers scrimped 1. Its annual release of spring fashions usually leads to a feeding frenzy among shoppers, but spring was different.
To get buyers in the shopping mood, companies resorted to different measures. The upscale retailer Neiman Marcus began introducing more mid-priced brands.
Discounters like Half-Priced books saw their sales surge. So did seed sellers as people began planting their own gardens. Finally, what about those products Aqua Globes, Snuggies, and Ped Eggs you see being hawked on television? Their sales were the best ever. Apparently, consumers too broke to go on vacation or shop at Saks were instead watching television and treating themselves to the products Ward, Can companies successfully target certain products to people based on their personalities?
How do you find out what personalities consumers have? Are extraverts wild spenders and introverts penny pinchers? Your self-concept is how you see yourself—be it positive or negative. Marketing researchers believe people buy products to enhance how they feel about themselves—to get themselves closer to their ideal selves. Army to recruit soldiers, is an attempt to appeal to the self-concept.
Presumably, by joining the U. Army, you will become a better version of yourself, which will, in turn, improve your life. All of us want products that improve our lives.
While demographic variables such as income, education, and marital status are important, we will look at gender, age, and stage of life and how they influence purchase decisions. They also shop differently and in general, have different attitudes about shopping. You know the old stereotypes. Women influence fully two-thirds of all household product purchases, whereas men buy about three-quarters of all alcoholic beverages Schmitt, The shopping differences between men and women seem to be changing, though.
One survey found that approximately 45 percent of married men actually like shopping and consider it relaxing. One study by Resource Interactive, a technology research firm, found that when shopping online, men prefer sites with lots of pictures of products and women prefer to see products online in lifestyle context—say, a lamp in a living room. Women are also twice as likely as men to use viewing tools such as the zoom and rotate buttons and links that allow them to change the color of products.
Marketing to men is big business. Some advertising agencies specialize in advertisements designed specifically to appeal to male consumers. Some advertising agencies specialize in advertising directed at men.
You have probably noticed that the things you buy have changed as you age. Think about what you wanted and how you spent five dollars when you were a child, a teenager, and an adult. When you were a child, the last thing you probably wanted as a gift was clothing.
As you became a teen, however, cool clothes probably became a bigger priority. How do you think spending patterns change when someone has a young child or a teenager or a child in college? Diapers and day care, orthodontia, tuition, electronics—regardless of the age, children affect the spending patterns of families.
Once children graduate from college and parents are empty nesters, spending patterns change again. Empty nesters and baby boomers are a huge market that companies are trying to tap.
The suit simulates the restricted mobility and vision people experience as they get older. Car designers can then figure out how to configure the automobiles to better meet the needs of these consumers. The suit gives the designer an idea what kinds of car-related challenges older consumers face. Your chronological age , or actual age in years, is one thing. Your cognitive age , or how old you perceive yourself to be, is another.
To better understand and connect with consumers, companies interview or ask people to complete questionnaires about their lifestyles or their activities, interests, and opinions often referred to as AIO statements. Consumers are not only asked about products they like, where they live, and what their gender is but also about what they do—that is, how they spend their time and what their priorities, values, opinions, and general outlooks on the world are.
Where do they go other than work? Who do they like to talk to? What do they talk about? Other companies have paid people to keep a daily journal of their activities and routines. A number of research organizations examine lifestyle and psychographic characteristics of consumers.
Psychographics combines the lifestyle traits of consumers and their personality styles with an analysis of their attitudes, activities, and values to determine groups of consumers with similar characteristics. One of the most widely used systems to classify people based on psychographics is the VALS Values, Attitudes, and Lifestyles framework. Using VALS to combine psychographics with demographic information such as marital status, education level, and income provide a better understanding of consumers.
Motivation is the inward drive we have to get what we need. In the mids, Abraham Maslow, an American psychologist, developed the hierarchy of needs shown in Figure 3. Maslow theorized that people have to fulfill their basic needs—food, water, and sleep—before they can begin fulfilling higher-level needs. Have you ever gone shopping when you were tired or hungry? Even if you were shopping for something that would make you the envy of your friends maybe a new car you probably wanted to sleep or eat even more.
Just give me a nap and a candy bar. The need for food is recurring. Other needs, such as shelter, clothing, and safety, tend to be enduring.
For example, during grade school and high school, your social needs probably rose to the forefront. You wanted to have friends and get a date. Perhaps this prompted you to buy certain types of clothing or electronic devices.
You will believe you have become the person in life that you feel you were meant to be. Following the economic crisis that began in , the sales of new automobiles dropped sharply virtually everywhere around the world—except the sales of Hyundai vehicles.
While achieving self-actualization may be a goal for many individuals in the United States, consumers in Eastern cultures may focus more on belongingness and group needs. Marketers look at cultural differences in addition to individual needs. The importance of groups affects advertising using groups versus individuals and product decisions. Perception is how you interpret the world around you and make sense of it in your brain.
You do so via stimuli that affect your different senses—sight, hearing, touch, smell, and taste. How you combine these senses also makes a difference. For example, in one study, consumers were blindfolded and asked to drink a new brand of clear beer. Most of them said the product tasted like regular beer.
Consumers are bombarded with messages on television, radio, magazines, the Internet, and even bathroom walls. The average consumer is exposed to about three thousand advertisements per day Lasn, Consumers are surfing the Internet, watching television, and checking their cell phones for text messages simultaneously.
Some, but not all, information makes it into our brains. Selecting information we see or hear e. Have you ever read or thought about something and then started noticing ads and information about it popping up everywhere?
Many people are more perceptive to advertisements for products they need. Selective attention is the process of filtering out information based on how relevant it is to you. A longtime chain smoker who forgets much of the information communicated during an antismoking commercial is an example. To be sure their advertising messages get through to you and you remember them, companies use repetition. How tired of iPhone commercials were you before they tapered off?
How often do you see the same commercial aired during a single television show? Another potential problem that advertisers or your friends may experience is selective distortion or misinterpretation of the intended message. Promotions for weight loss products show models that look slim and trim after using their products, and consumers may believe they will look like the model if they use the product.
They misinterpret other factors such as how the model looked before or how long it will take to achieve the results. Similarly, have you ever told someone a story about a friend and that person told another person who told someone else? By the time the story gets back to you, it is completely different. The same thing can happen with many types of messages.
Using surprising stimuli or shock advertising is also a technique that works. One study found that shocking content increased attention, benefited memory, and positively influenced behavior among a group of university students Dahl, et. Subliminal advertising is the opposite of shock advertising and involves exposing consumers to marketing stimuli such as photos, ads, and messages by stealthily embedding them in movies, ads, and other media.
Although there is no evidence that subliminal advertising works, years ago the words Drink Coca-Cola were flashed for a millisecond on a movie screen. Consumers were thought to perceive the information subconsciously and to be influenced to buy the products shown. Many people considered the practice to be subversive, and in , the Federal Communications Commission condemned it.
Much of the original research on subliminal advertising, conducted by a researcher trying to drum up business for his market research firm, was fabricated Crossen, People are still fascinated by subliminal advertising, however. If you blinked, you missed it. Some television stations actually called ABC to figure out what was going on. One-second ads were later rolled out to movie theaters Adalian, Different consumers perceive information differently.
A couple of frames about The Mole might make you want to see the television show. However, your friend might see the ad, find it stupid, and never tune in to watch the show. One man sees Pledge, an outstanding furniture polish, while another sees a can of spray no different from any other furniture polish.
One woman sees a luxurious Gucci purse, and the other sees an overpriced bag to hold keys and makeup Chartrand, Learning refers to the process by which consumers change their behavior after they gain information or experience. People with limited experience about a product or brand generally seek out more information than people who have used a product before. Companies try to get consumers to learn about their products in different ways. Car dealerships offer test drives. Other companies give consumers free samples.
Have you ever eaten the food samples in a grocery store? While sampling is an expensive strategy, it gets consumers to try the product and many customers buy it, especially right after trying in the store. Another kind of learning is operant or instrumental conditioning , which is what occurs when researchers are able to get a mouse to run through a maze for a piece of cheese or a dog to salivate just by ringing a bell.
In other words, learning occurs through repetitive behavior that has positive or negative consequences. Companies engage in operant conditioning by rewarding consumers, which cause consumers to want to repeat their purchasing behaviors. Another learning process called classical conditioning occurs by associating a conditioned stimulus CS with an unconditioned stimulus US to get a particular response.
The more frequently the CS is linked with the US, the faster learning occurs and this is what advertisers and businesses try to do. Think about a meal at a restaurant where the food was really good and you went with someone special. You like the person and want to go out again. It could be that classical conditioning occurred. That is, the food produced a good feeling and you may associate the person with the food, thus producing a good feeling about the person.
Companies want people to have positive feelings about their offerings. A few years ago, KFC began running ads to the effect that fried chicken was healthy—until the U. Federal Trade Commission told the company to stop. Situational factors, personal factors, and psychological factors influence what you buy, but only on a temporary basis. Societal factors are a bit different. They are more outward and have broad influences on your beliefs and the way you do things. They depend on the world around you and how it works.
Culture refers to the shared beliefs, customs, behaviors, and attitudes that characterize a society. Your culture prescribes the way in which you should live and has a huge effect on the things you purchase. For example, in Beirut, Lebanon, women can often be seen wearing miniskirts. In Afghanistan women generally wear burqas , which cover them completely from head to toe.
Interestingly, abayas have become big business in recent years. They come in many styles, cuts, and fabrics and some are encrusted with jewels and cost thousands of dollars. To read about the fashions women in Muslim countries wear, check out the following article: Even cultures that share many of the same values as the United States can be quite different.
Following the meltdown of the financial markets in , countries around the world were pressed by the United States to engage in deficit spending to stimulate the worldwide economy. The plan was a hard sell both to German politicians and to the German people in general. Credit card companies such as Visa, American Express, and MasterCard must understand cultural perceptions about credit. A subculture is a group of people within a culture who are different from the dominant culture but have something in common with one another such as common interests, vocations or jobs, religions, ethnic backgrounds, and geographic locations.
The fastest-growing subculture in the United States consists of people of Hispanic origin, followed by Asian Americans, and African Americans. The purchasing power of U. Home Depot has launched a Spanish version of its Web site. Walmart is in the process of converting some of its Neighborhood Markets into stores designed to appeal to Hispanics. Marketing products based on the ethnicity of consumers is useful but may become harder to do in the future because the boundaries between ethnic groups are blurring.
Otherkins are primarily Internet users who believe they are reincarnations of mythological or legendary creatures—angels, demons, vampires—you name it. Like while buying toothpaste a consumer is not highly involved. Significant differences between brands: Few differences between brands: So in this case the consumer must collect proper information about the product features and the marketer must provide detailed information regarding the product attributes.
Consumer while buying a motor cycle is highly involved in the purchase and has the knowledge about significant differences between brands. Consumers generally buy different products not due to dissatisfaction from the earlier product but due to seek variety. Like every time they buy different washing detergent just for variety. So it is the duty of the marketer to encourage the consumer to buy the product by offering them discounts, free samples and by advertising the product a lot.
Like consumer while buying a floor tiles buy them quickly as there are few differences between brands. The consumer buys the product quickly. You can get our e books also. Please see the page:.
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Contents of Chapter 6 Class Notes. What is Consumer Buying Behavior? Stages of Consumer Buying Behavior? Types of Consumer Buying Behavior. Categories That Effect Consumer Buying Behavior. Personal; Consumer Buying Behavior refers to the buying behavior of the ultimate consumer. A firm needs to analyze buying behavior .
Consumer buying behavior is the sum total of a consumer's attitudes, preferences, intentions, and decisions regarding the consumer's behavior in the marketplace when purchasing a product or.
The consumer’s social situation, time factors, the reason for their purchases, and their moods also affect their buying behavior. Your personality describes your disposition as other people see it. Market researchers believe people buy products to enhance how they feel about themselves. Definition of consumer buying behavior: The process by which individuals search for, select, purchase, use, and dispose of goods and services, in satisfaction of their needs and wants. See also consumer decision making.
Jul 20, · Commentary and archival information about consumer behavior from The New York Times. Companies try to lock people into buying their products without comparison shopping. The sector is. The more expensive the good is the more information is required by the consumer. There are four types of consumer buying behavior on the basis of buyer involvement while purchasing any product.