Project management enables organisations to prevent or remove internal project constraints and also adapt to unforeseen changes in project scope or goals. An organisation can, depending on its requirements, either adopt a standard project management approach or combine multiple approaches.
Additionally, an organisation has the advantage of project management software applications which facilitates intelligent planning, constraint removal and monitoring of projects. The traditional approach assumes that the project scope and goals will remain constant till project completion.
Obviously, a project manager plans and identifies project resources based on this assumption. The traditional approach lays down the following project phases:. Since the approach is inherently rigid, many organisations may choose a hybrid project management approach. The approach assumes that at least one constraint behavioural or process-related is likely to hinder projects which utilise complex processes and a large number of cross-functional teams.
The approach recommends the use of behavioural and mathematical sciences to first predict, and then analyse and remove constraints. The project team can use data to remove the constraints. For example, if productivity is a foreseen concern, then a project manager could track the actual time spent by team members on the job. This approach is useful in sending quality deliverables on time by proactively removing constraints.
This approach is suitable for projects which handle dynamic situations, such as, changing customer requirements. Often, it may not be possible to obtain a full clarity of requirements and a project may purely be guided by market changes. The mobile phone industry, which experiences rapid changes, is a case in point. The project team, hence, plans purely on the basis of the currently available data and depending on requirement changes, modifies plans. According to this approach, a single constraint can create a chain of constraints and severely impede a project.
For example, in a project, if several departments depend on one another, then constraints in any one department can negatively impact the productivity of downstream departments. Reliable data, collected over time, can even help track event chains. The Gantt chart is a popular event chain tracking tool. The event chain approach, hence, could be an excellent problem solving approach for critical projects.
Project management software capabilities have expanded notably and it gives more than just scheduling meetings and activities. A project management tool can estimate the effort, monitor project progress and highlight risks. The idea of having teams altogether forming the project management system is completely based on the ability of these teams enable everyone in the company to participate in the design and implementation of different strategies.
These strategies will lately make the organization more competitive. Cleland thinks that the formation of a team is a very important phase in the introduction of a project in any organization. An incorrect selection of team members may lead to an unproductive activity, holding up the rest of the structural formations of the project.
The integration of the teams and maintenance of interpersonal positive dynamic perfectly suits the strategic plan of any organization using project management as their ruling principle.
The teams in the huge block the form have to be in constant change and improvement, using as many resources as they can, especially including critical resources.
The culture of an organization as a whole gets definite benefits from using the team-structure. On one hand it gives every employee the opportunity to reveal himself within him team, and constantly move if not vertically, but at least horizontally. On the other hand it endures the commitment to the organization and therefore increases its productivity supported with milestone goal achievement and the phased control.
According to Cleland, the implementation of the project management is a very wide process. It primarily deals with choosing a goal, planning the work and executing it.
The growth of an organization may have certain risks if the organization does not really posses the required resources at the time of the primary implementation period and the final product is not at a sufficient demand among the customers of the company. The organization, in the opinion of Cleland has to be able at any time to supports strategic goals with all the required resources. The project has to provide something unique in order to completely achieve.
Project management means making the right decisions in the right moment at the minimum possible cost. Such companies as Microsoft, General Motors, Daimler Chrysler and many other organizations have already implemented the project management system. The results speak for themselves. A clear stating of the goal, right planning and scrupulous execution lead to a successful achievement of all the tasks and milestone goals.
The presence of these milestone goals in its place becomes on the most important controlling tasks of project management implementation. The last important issue to mention concerning the book is the project risk. Project risk is designed for the prevention of an undesired outcome of a project.
The management of the risk becomes the key of the control over the uncertainty in the project. It evaluates the possible risk of the project and prevents it even before the critical situation may occur and is always based on definite facts and their analysis.
This is often done through the standard risk model. It analyses the possible risk event and its possible impact with total loss of the organization.
So, mainly it deals with the identification of risks using numerous professional tools such as: Generally speaking project management is a great substitution to any management model existing in the contemporary society. The constant changing enviroment strongly demands new techniques of management. The model offered by Cleland has a primary goal of doing the best for the development of any project through the cooperation of various departments of the organization.
The main focus of the book is the teamwork and strategic planning. According to the book the right and appropriate strategy and structure of an organizaion can be a guarantee of the best possible result. Nevertheless, project management is not only about techniques. It is about converting an organization in one solid formation, one being, that will exist and function for the sake of all of its components.
Our society desperately needs a decent enviroment for the implementation of project management. And as Cleland states the strategic context of project management, project governance and the proper organizational design will help it a lot. Periodic risk monitoring also supports this whole system of tools, decreasing the possibility of getting an undesirable result to its minimum. How to write an essay Types of Essay.
Essay Examples New Essay Examples. Example of a Argumentative essay on Management about: How to write a Argumentative Essay. A Project can be defined as a complex human endeavour to create change with in a set budget and time to provide specific goals and out comes that is unique to an organisation.
Project Management is a set of principles to effectively manage the process and activity of planning, organizing motivating and controlling resources and procedures to achieve specific goals in a unique environment. Project life cycle define the beginning and end of a project with a project sequence that is necessary to fulfil project goals or objectives. All projects can be mapped to four basic phases. The project life cycle is an important tool to manage the sequence of tasks that need to be completed in a project.
A Programme is more than one project that is managed jointly to provide better management overview. These project may contain ongoing operations as well as repetitive undertakings. Question 2 The Project Life Cycle has been divided into 4 basic phases: Project Initiation The Initiation Phase is the backbone of the project where goals is set in the life-cycle.
In this phase a challenge or an opportunity is identified and solution options are presented. A feasibility study will be conducted to identify the correct solution for the project. The solution needs to be approved and the project are initialized. A Project Manager is appointed and the objectives, scope and structure of the new project is outlined in the Project Charter.
The project team and environment is established to head the project. The Planning phase involves the creation of a set of planning documents witch will guide the project team through the project. It identifies the Work Breakdown Structure WBS of phases, activities, tasks, dependencies and timeframes to be under taken to complete the project.
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Generally speaking project management is a great substitution to any management model existing in the contemporary society. David I. Cleland’s and Lewis R. Ireland’s “Project Management: Design and . management methods when looking at technical approaches to a project. Within this essay, I have examined the various merits of pattern-based and more traditional methods to project management, which has led towards several conclusions.
Free project management papers, essays, and research papers. Project management is one of the most important and critical tool or technique, which defines the entire course of development of any kind of project.