At the end of the session, the student is expected to: Define development, focusing on three elements of its scientific study and noting how dynamic-systems theory highlights the interactive nature of development.
Describe the ecological-systems approach to the study of human development, and explain how this approach leads to an understanding of the overlapping contexts in which people develop.
Identify five characteristics of development. List and describe the basic steps of the scientific method. Describe three basic research designs used by developmental psychologists. The science of human development seeks to understand how and why people—all people, everywhere—change with increasing age, and how and why they remain the same. The science of human development is empirical, meaning that it focuses on data, facts, observation, and experimentation.
The emphasis on the interaction between people and within each person is highlighted by dynamic-systems theory, which stresses fluctuations and transitions. According to this model, human development is supported by systems at four nested levels: A fifth system, the mesosystem, involves systems, or parts of a single system. Development is multidirectional, multicontextual, multicultural, multidisciplinary, and plastic.
Two important insights of the multidirectional aspect of this perspective are the concepts of dynamic change, which refers to the continual change that occurs within each person and each social group, and the butterfly effect, in which even a tiny change in one system can have a profound effect on the other systems of development. Researchers take a broader view of development, recognizing the influence on development of external forces, that is, the context of development.
This larger perspective makes it imperative that development be understood in its social context, including its historical and socioeconomic contexts. A cohort is a group of people born within a few years of each other who tend to share certain historical and social influences and perspectives.
Socioeconomic status SES is determined by several overlapping variables, including income, education, place of residence, and occupation. Although low income obviously limits a person, other factors such as education can make poverty better or worse. Culture affects development in a multitude of interrelated ways, from whether to cover your mouth when laughing to what to eat for breakfast.
Cultures are dynamic, always changing, as people change and grow older. People can belong to more than one culture, with their choice dependent on their immediate context. Although race was once defined as a biological category, it is actually a social construction.
The three domains of development include the biosocial domain brain and body as well as changes in them and the social influences that guide them , the cognitive domain thought processes, perceptual abilities, and language mastery, as well as the educational institutions that encourage them , and the psychosocial domain emotions, personality, and interpersonal relationships with family, friends, and the wider community. All three domains are important at every age, and each of the domains is affected by the other two.
The value of an interdisciplinary approach to understanding human development can be seen in research on mirror neurons, which are brain cells that respond to the observed actions of others. These neurons, which in the human brain reflect gestures, mouth movements, and whole-body actions, may help explain some aspects of social organization and how culture is transmitted.
One of the most encouraging aspects of the science of development is that development is characterized by plasticity, or the capability of change.
One remarkable example is resilience, which is the ability of some children to overcome severe threats to their development. Collective efficacy refers to the degree to which neighbors create a functioning, informal network of people who show concern for each other.
The scientific method consists of five basic steps: Replication of research findings verifies the findings and leads researchers to more definitive and extensive conclusions. In replicating research, scientists use a different but related set of participants. In designing research, scientists are concerned with four issues: There are many ways to test hypotheses.
One method is scientific observation of people in their natural environment or in a laboratory setting. Observation is limited in that it tells us only if two variables are correlated. Experiments can reveal cause-and-effect relationships by allowing experimenters to observe whether a change in an independent variable affects some specific behavior, or dependent variable.
In an experiment, the participants who receive a particular treatment constitute the experimental group; the participants who do not receive the treatment constitute the comparison group control group. Statistics are often used to analyze experimental results.
Sometimes results are reported by effect size. To determine whether a difference between two groups occurred purely by coincidence, or chance, researchers apply a test of significance. The survey is especially vulnerable to bias: By communicating my results, I may interest others in pursuing these questions which will then lead right back to step one!
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The 3rd step is creating a hypothesis. Hypothesis is a prediction based on what you researched. This will allow you to build a logical guess and come back to it. This is where the data is manufactured from.
This is where the hypothesis is tested as true or false. It is important though that all experiments are conducted evenly and fairly. Many scientists will often find that there hypothesis is false.
They will then either retry or construct another hypothesis.
The Scientific Method Essay Words 5 Pages The Scientific Method is the standardized procedure that scientists are supposed to follow when conducting experiments, in order to try to construct a reliable, consistent, and non-arbitrary representation of our surroundings.
The Scientific Method - The Scientific Method is the standardized procedure that scientists are supposed to follow when conducting experiments, in order to try to construct a reliable, consistent, and non-arbitrary representation of our surroundings.
Student Researched Essay on The Scientific Method, why it's important and description of how scientists use it. Free Essay: The scientific method is a process that outlines a number of principles for answering questions. Many people in day-to-day situations use the.
The scientific method as described here is an idealization, and should not be understood as a set procedure for doing science. Scientists have as many weaknesses and character flaws as any other group, and it is common for scientists to try to discredit other people’s experiments when the results run contrary to their own favored point of view. The scientific method is a process in which you form a hypothesis from a question that needs to be attempted to solve. To answer the question you make predictions, followed by testing your predictions and interpreting your results.4/4(1).