It helps remove some of the uncertainty by providing relevant information about the marketing variables, environment, and consumers. In the absence of relevant information, consumers' response to marketing programs cannot be predicted reliably or accurately. Ongoing marketing research programs provide information on controllable and non-controllable factors and consumers; this information enhances the effectiveness of decisions made by marketing managers.
Traditionally, marketing researchers were responsible for providing the relevant information and marketing decisions were made by the managers. However, the roles are changing and marketing researchers are becoming more involved in decision making, whereas marketing managers are becoming more involved with research. The role of marketing research in managerial decision making is explained further using the framework of the DECIDE model.
Evidence for commercial research being gathered informally dates to the Medieval period. In , the German textile manufacturer, Johann Fugger , travelled from Augsburg to Graben in order to gather information on the international textile industry.
He exchanged detailed letters on trade conditions in relevant areas. Although, this type of information would have been termed "commercial intelligence" at the time, it created a precedent for the systemic collection of marketing information.
During the European age of discovery, industrial houses began to import exotic, luxury goods - calico cloth from India, porcelain, silk and tea from China, spices from India and South-East Asia and tobacco, sugar, rum and coffee from the New World.
During this period, Daniel Defoe , a London merchant, published information on trade and economic resources of England and Scotland. Defoe was a prolific publisher and among his many publications are titles devoted to the state of trade including; Trade of Britain Stated, ; Trade of Scotland with France, and The Trade to India Critically and Calmly Considered, - all of which provided merchants and traders with important information on which to base business decisions.
Until the late 18th-century, European and North-American economies were characteristed by local production and consumption. Produce, household goods and tools were produced by local artisans or farmers with exchange taking place in local markets or fairs. Under these conditions, the need for marketing information was minimail.
However, the rise of mass-production following the industrial revolution, combined with improved transportation systems of the early 19th-century, led to the creation of national markets and ultimately, stimulated the need for more detailed information about customers, competitors, distribution systems and market communications. By the 19th-century, manufacturers were exploring ways to understand the different market needs and behaviours of groups of consumers.
A study of the German book trade found examples of both product differentiation and market segmentation as early as the s. In , Amercian advertising agency, N. Between and , George B Waldron, working at Mahin's Advertising Agency in the United States used tax registers, city directories and census data to show advertisers the proportion of educated vs illiterate consumers and the earning capacity of different occupations in a very early example of simple market segmentation.
Parlin published a number of studies of various product-markets including agriculture ; consumer goods c. In Paul Cherington improved on primitive forms of demographic market segmentation when he developed the 'ABCD' household typology; the first socio-demographic segmentation tool. In the first three decades of the 20th-century, advertising agencies and marketing departments developed the basic techniques used in quantitative and qualitative research - survey methods, questionnaires, gallup polls etc.
Duncan of the University of Chicago. Adequate knowledge of consumer preferences was a key to survival in the face of increasingly competitive markets. The advent of commercial radio in the s, and television in the s, led a number of market research companies to develop the means to measure audience size and audience composition. In , Arthur Nielsen founded market research company, A C Nielsen and over next decade pioneered the measurement of radio audiences. He subsequently applied his methods to the measurement of television audiences.
Around the same time, Daniel Starch developed measures for testing advertising copy effectiveness in print media newspapers and magazines , and these subsequently became known as Starch scores and are still used today. During, the s and s, many of the data collection methods, probability sampling methods, survey methods, questionnaire design and key metrics were developed. By the s, Ernest Dichter was pioneering the focus group method of qualitative research.
For this, he is often described as the 'father of market research. These methods eventually lead to the development of motivational research. By the s, the first courses on marketing research were taught in universities and colleges. Brown became one of the popular textbooks during this period. Marketers, such as Paul Green, were instrumental in developing techniques such as conjoint analysis and multidimensional scaling , both of which are used in positioning maps, market segmentation, choice analysis and other marketing applications.
Web analytics were born out of the need to track the behavior of site visitors and, as the popularity of e-commerce and web advertising grew, businesses demanded details on the information created by new practices in web data collection, such as click-through and exit rates. As the Internet boomed, websites became larger and more complex and the possibility of two-way communication between businesses and their consumers became a reality.
Provided with the capacity to interact with online customers, Researchers were able to collect large amounts of data that were previously unavailable, further propelling the marketing research industry. In the new millennium, as the Internet continued to develop and websites became more interactive, data collection and analysis became more commonplace for those marketing research firms whose clients had a web presence.
Retail outlets were appearing online and the previous need for bricks-and-mortar stores was diminishing at a greater pace than online competition was growing. With so many online channels for consumers to make purchases, companies needed newer and more compelling methods, in combination with messages that resonated more effectively, to capture the attention of the average consumer.
Having access to web data did not automatically provide companies with the rationale behind the behavior of users visiting their sites, which provoked the marketing research industry to develop new and better ways of tracking, collecting and interpreting information. This led to the development of various tools like online focus groups and pop-up or website intercept surveys. These types of services allowed companies to dig deeper into the motivations of consumers, augmenting their insights and utilizing this data to drive market share.
As information around the world became more accessible, increased competition led companies to demand more of market researchers. It was no longer sufficient to follow trends in web behavior or track sales data; companies now needed access to consumer behavior throughout the entire purchase process.
This meant the Marketing Research Industry, again, needed to adapt to the rapidly changing needs of the marketplace, and to the demands of companies looking for a competitive edge. Today, marketing research has adapted to innovations in technology and the corresponding ease with which information is available. This demand is driving marketing researchers to develop new platforms for interactive, two-way communication between their firms and consumers.
Mobile devices such as Smart Phones are the best example of an emerging platform that enables businesses to connect with their customers throughout the entire buying process. As personal mobile devices become more capable and widespread, the marketing research industry will look to further capitalize on this trend.
Mobile devices present the perfect channel for research firms to retrieve immediate impressions from buyers and to provide their clients with a holistic view of the consumers within their target markets, and beyond. Now, more than ever, innovation is the key to success for Marketing Researchers.
Marketing Research Clients are beginning to demand highly personalized and specifically-focused products from the marketing research firms; big data is great for identifying general market segments, but is less capable of identifying key factors of niche markets, which now defines the competitive edge companies are looking for in this mobile-digital age. First, marketing research is systematic.
Thus systematic planning is required at all the stages of the marketing research process. The procedures followed at each stage are methodologically sound, well documented, and, as much as possible, planned in advance.
Marketing research uses the scientific method in that data are collected and analyzed to test prior notions or hypotheses. Experts in marketing research have shown that studies featuring multiple and often competing hypotheses yield more meaningful results than those featuring only one dominant hypothesis. Marketing research is objective. It attempts to provide accurate information that reflects a true state of affairs. It should be conducted impartially.
While research is always influenced by the researcher's research philosophy, it should be free from the personal or political biases of the researcher or the management.
Research which is motivated by personal or political gain involves a breach of professional standards. Such research is deliberately biased so as to result in predetermined findings. The objective nature of marketing research underscores the importance of ethical considerations. Also, researchers should always be objective with regard to the selection of information to be featured in reference texts because such literature should offer a comprehensive view on marketing.
Research has shown, however, that many marketing textbooks do not feature important principles in marketing research. Organizations engage in marketing research for two reasons: This distinction serves as a basis for classifying marketing research into problem identification research and problem solving research. Problem identification research is undertaken to help identify problems which are, perhaps, not apparent on the surface and yet exist or are likely to arise in the future like company image, market characteristics, sales analysis, short-range forecasting, long range forecasting, and business trends research.
Research of this type provides information about the marketing environment and helps diagnose a problem. For example, the findings of problem solving research are used in making decisions which will solve specific marketing problems. The Stanford Research Institute , on the other hand, conducts an annual survey of consumers that is used to classify persons into homogeneous groups for segmentation purposes.
Standardized services are research studies conducted for different client firms but in a standard way. For example, procedures for measuring advertising effectiveness have been standardized so that the results can be compared across studies and evaluative norms can be established.
The Starch Readership Survey is the most widely used service for evaluating print advertisements; another well-known service is the Gallup and Robinson Magazine Impact Studies. These services are also sold on a syndicated basis. All of these forms of marketing research can be classified as either problem-identification research or as problem-solving research.
Primary research is conducted from scratch. It is original and collected to solve the problem in hand. Secondary research already exists since it has been collected for other purposes. It is conducted on data published previously and usually by someone else. Secondary research costs far less than primary research, but seldom comes in a form that exactly meets the needs of the researcher. A similar distinction exists between exploratory research and conclusive research.
Exploratory research provides insights into and comprehension of an issue or situation. It should draw definitive conclusions only with extreme caution. Conclusive research draws conclusions: Exploratory research is conducted to explore a problem to get some basic idea about the solution at the preliminary stages of research.
It may serve as the input to conclusive research. Exploratory research information is collected by focus group interviews, reviewing literature or books, discussing with experts, etc. This is unstructured and qualitative in nature. Market research is the process of assessing the viability of a new good or service through research conducted directly with the consumer. This practice allows a company to discover the target market and record opinions and other input from consumers regarding interest in the product.
Market research may be conducted by the company itself or by a third-party company that specializes in the market research field. It can be done through surveys, product testing and focus groups. The purpose of market research is to examine the market associated with a particular good or service to determine how the audience will receive it.
This can include information gathering for the purpose of market segmentation and product differentiation , which can be used to tailor advertising efforts or determine which features are seen as a priority to the consumer.
A business must engage in a variety of tasks to complete the market research process. It needs to gather information based on the market sector being examined. The business must analyze and interpret the resulting data to determine the presence of any patterns or relevant data points that it can use in the decision-making process.
Primary information is the data that the company has collected directly or that has been collected by a person or business hired to conduct the research. This type of information generally falls into two categories: Exploratory research is a less structured option and functions via more open-ended questions, and it results in questions or issues being presented that the company may need to address.
Specific research obtains answers to previously identified issues that are often brought to attention through exploratory research. Secondary information is data that an outside entity has already gathered. This can include population information from government census data, trade association reports or presented research from another business operating within the same market sector. A company that was considering going into business might conduct market research to test the viability of its product or service.
If the market research confirms consumer interest, the business can proceed confidently with the business plan. If not, the company should use the results of the market research to make adjustments to the product to bring it in line with customer desires. Market research was first put into place in the United States in the s, and originated during the advertising boom during the Golden Age of Radio.
Companies that advertised on the radio began to understand the demographics that were revealed by how different radio shows were sponsored. Data collected from these interviews were compared to the circulation of the publication in order to see how effective those ads were. Market research and surveys were adapted from these early techniques.
Data collection then shifted to the telephone, making face-to-face contact unnecessary.
The core difference between Market Research and Marketing Research is the scope of the concept. First, Market Research is a more narrow concept because it is research focused on a specific market. Marketing Research, however, scales on a much broader level.
Market research should not be confused with marketing reasearch, which is the scientific and objective study of the overall marketing process which involves collection, analysis, communication and utilization of information, so as to help the management in the process of decision making and also resolving marketing problems.
Marketing research entails dealing with a broad range of consumers. Marketing research includes "market" research, but it also delves into more. The best way to differentiate the two is to understand that marketing research is essentially about researching the marketing "process" of a company—not just "who" they are targeting. MarketsandMarkets's™ flagship competitive intelligence and market research platform, "Knowledgestore" connects over , markets and entire value chains for deeper understanding of the unmet insights along with market sizing and forecasts of niche markets.
In fact, strategies such as market segmentation (identifying specific groups within a market) and product differentiation (creating an identity for a product or service that separates it from those of the competitors) are impossible to develop without market research. While market research can be a predictor of success, marketing research is a way to look over past efforts and improve. Marketing research usually revolves around the effectiveness of a campaign and takes brand attitudes, customer satisfaction, and feedback into .