Sometimes the main contributor is not an author, but another contributor type, such as an editor for a book, a conductor for a musical piece, or a producer for a film. In this instance, follow the contributor with the contributor type abbreviate Editor s as Ed.
Some sources may have corporate or group authors. Write these organizations in their entirety, and place them where you would write the author. Illinois Department of Industrial Relations. Sometimes you will come across sources with no contributor information. In this instance, do not write the date first. Instead, write the name of the title and then the date, then followed by the remaining appropriate bibliographic data. Article titles and works within larger works, such as chapters and web pages, as well as informally published material are not italicized.
Main titles that stand alone, such as those for books and journals, are italicized. Generally, capitalize the first letter of the first word of the title or any subtitles, and the first letter of any proper nouns. For titles of periodicals, such as journals and newspapers, capitalize every principal word.
After the contributor information and title comes the publication information. Below are different publication templates. Journal Title, Volume Issue , Page s. Magazine Title, Volume Issue , Page s. Retrieved from Homepage URL. Year, Month Day published. Newspaper Title , Page s. For less conventional source types, you can add descriptions about the source after the title, in brackets, immediately after the title. For example, you can add [Brochure] after the title of a brochure separated by a space to clarify the type of source you are citing.
When citing nonperiodical sources, advanced information such as the edition and series information comes before the publication information and immediately after the title, grouped in the same parentheses. See the example below: Generally, parenthetical citations include the last name of the author and year of publication.
Page numbers are also included when citing a direct quote. If some of the information is included in the body of the sentence, exclude it from the parenthetical citation.
In-text APA citations typically appear at the end of the sentence, between the last word and the period. According to Belafonte, Harlem was full of artists and musicians in the late s When citing a specific part of a work, provide the relevant page number or section identifier, such as a chapters, tables, or figures. Direct quotes should always have page numbers.
Example for citing part of a source in your in-text or parenthetical APA citation: If the source does not include page numbers such as online sources , you can reference specific parts of the work by referencing the: Corporations, government agencies, and associations can be considered the author of a source when no specific author is given.
When directly quoting information from sources in your writing, you may need to format it differently depending on how many words are used. Packer states that: The future of fantasy sports depends on the advocacy of the Fantasy Sports Trade Association to work with various state government agencies on legislation and reform. Click here to learn more about parenthetical citing. When citing electronic or online sources, keep these things in mind: We include citations in our research projects to prevent plagiarism.
Plagiarism, while preventable, can result in serious consequences. Click here to learn more about plagiarism. If you were told to create your citations in APA format, your paper should be formatted using these guidelines. On the following page, begin with the Body of the APA paper. A book is a written work or composition that has been published — typically printed on pages bound together. Book citations contain the author name, publication year, book title, city and state or country of publication and the publisher name.
Much of the information you need to create a print book citation can be found on the title page. The title page is found within the first couple of pages of the book. See more across the site.
A chapter is a specific section, or segment, of a book. Chapters often have their own title or they are numbered. Much of the information you will need to create a chapter in a print book citation can be found on the title page. You will also need some of the information found on the table of contents. The chapter title, author, and page numbers can be found there. The night of MidAutumn Festival.
An e-book is a written work or composition that has been digitized and is readable through computers or e-readers such as Kindles, iPads, Nooks, etc. Title of work [E-reader version]. Dracula [Kindle HDX version]. Retrieved from URL or http: However, you must include an in-text citation anytime you reference these texts in your writing. For the in-text citation, when quoting or paraphrasing specific excerpts from the text, include the information about the specific verse, line, page, etc.
If the version of the religious text you are using is relevant, mention it in the first reference in your writing. This can be as either a general reference or a formal in-text citation. Remember, you only need to cite the version of the religious text used in the first general reference or in-text citation of the source.
In all other instances, leave it out. Scholarly, or academic, journals are often created for specific fields or disciplines. In journal citations, journal titles are written in title case and followed by the volume number.
Both of these fields should be italicized. Database information and the retrieval date are not required in journal article citations. Check out our quiz-page with tests about:. Retrieved Sep 14, from Explorable. The text in this article is licensed under the Creative Commons-License Attribution 4. You can use it freely with some kind of link , and we're also okay with people reprinting in publications like books, blogs, newsletters, course-material, papers, wikipedia and presentations with clear attribution.
Check Out the Official Book Learn how to construct, style and format an Academic paper and take your skills to the next level. Read More also available as ebook. This article is a part of the guide: Select from one of the other courses available: Don't miss these related articles:. Save this course for later Don't have time for it all now? Add to my courses. Take it with you wherever you go. The Research Council of Norway. Share this page on your website: Check out our quiz-page with tests about: Back to Overview "Write a Paper".
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APA Sample Paper. Media File: APA Sample Paper. This resource is enhanced by an Acrobat PDF file. Download the free Acrobat Reader. APA Style. APA Style Introduction; APA Overview and Workshop; APA Formatting and Style Guide. General Format; In-Text Citations: The Basics;.
APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page.
The APA writing style has evolved through time and several changes have been adapted in response to the electronic information age. What follows are some useful pointers for those of you who have been asked to write a paper using the APA format. In general, your paper should follow these formatting guidelines. APA Paper Formatting & Style Guidelines Your teacher may want you to format your paper using APA guidelines. If you were told to create your citations in APA format, your paper should be formatted using the APA guidelines as well. General guidelines: Use white 8 ½ x 11” paper. Make [ ].
42 SAMPLE PAPERS EFFECTS OF AGE ON DETECTION OF EMOTION 3 Effects of Age on Detection of Emotional Information Frequently, people encounter situations in their environment in which it is impossible to. Section of the APA manual (American Psychological Association [APA], ) has additional information about the abstract. The abstract is important because many journal readers first read the abstract to determine if the entire article is worth reading. The Writing a Paper in APA Style.