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What Are Some Examples of Secondary Data?

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❶Calculation of effect size.

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Over 11,, live tutoring sessions served! To get the best deal on Tutoring, call Toll Free. Definition Back to Top.

Types Back to Top. Qualitative Data Collection Back to Top. Quantitative Data Collection Back to Top. Statistical Data Collection Methods. Collecting and Analyzing Data. Qualitative Data Analysis Methods. Find the Quartiles of the Data. Algebra Elimination Method Calculator. Calculator for Substitution Method. Gauss Jordan Method Calculator. Information collected by the government will also cover parts of the population that may be less likely to respond to the census in countries where this is optional.

A clear benefit of using secondary data is that much of the background work needed has already been carried out, such as literature reviews or case studies. The data may have been used in published texts and statistics elsewhere, and the data could already be promoted in the media or bring in useful personal contacts. Secondary data generally have a pre-established degree of validity and reliability which need not be re-examined by the researcher who is re-using such data.

Secondary data can provide a baseline for primary research to compare the collected primary data results to and it can also be helpful in research design. However, secondary data can present problems, too. The data may be out of date or inaccurate. If using data collected for different research purposes, it may not cover those samples of the population researchers want to examine, or not in sufficient detail. While 'secondary data' is typically associated with quantitative databases, analysis focused on verbal or visual materials created for another purpose, is a legitimate avenue for the qualitative researcher.

In the analysis of secondary qualitative data, good documentation cannot be underestimated as it provides future researchers with the background and context and allows replication. Do a pilot test to a test the actual observation procedure and b check the reliability of the categories of observation using at least two independent observers. Revise the procedure and instruments in light of the pilot test results.

If substantial changes are made to the instrument, run another pilot test to make sure changes will work under the field conditions.

Collect, compile, and analyze the data and interpret results. Casual observation is normally done like unstructured interviews. Data mining is commonly used in both qualitative and quantitative research. Secondary data provides data which provides a framework for the research project, development of research question s , and validation of study findings. Bureau of Labor Statistics - Extensive information on such things as employment, unemployment, types of employment, income, etc.

State Employment Departments - Number employed by industry, projected levels of employment growth, available jobs skills and skill shortages Federal Land Management - National Parks, historic sites, scenic areas, forests by acres, budget and visitation rates.

Number of alcohol and drug abuse counselors, number of family counselors. Number and cases of child abuse, spouse abuse, desertions, child adoptions rate. Newspapers - Scanning local newspapers is an excellent means to become better acquainted with a community and its principal actors as well as the issues that have been of greatest local concern Content Analysis.

It is used to quantitatively studying mass media. The technique uses secondary data and is considered unobtrusive research. The first step is to select the media to be studied and the research topic. Then develop a classification system to record the information. The techniques can use trained judges or a computer program can be used to sort the data to increase the reliability of the process. Content analysis is a tedious process due to the requirement that each data source be analyzed along a number of dimensions.

It may also be inductive identifies themes and patterns or deductive quantifies frequencies of data. The results are descriptive, but will also indicate trends or issues of interest. Meta-analysis combines the results of studies being reviewed. It utilizes statistical techniques to estimate the strength of a given set of findings across many different studies.

This allows the creation of a context from which future research can emerge and determine the reliability of a finding by examining results from many different studies. Researchers analyze the methods used in previous studies, and collectively quantify the findings of the studies. Meta-analysis findings form a basis for establishing new theories, models and concepts. Identification of the research problem. Conduct of a literature review of identified studies to determine inclusion or exclusion.

A careful reading and evaluation to identify and code important study characteristics. Calculation of effect size. Effect size is the mean of the experimental group minus the mean of the control group, divided by the standard deviation of the control group. The notion is to calculate the effect size across a number of studies to determine the relevance of the test, treatment, or method.

Reporting of the findings and conclusions. Historical research is also referred to as analytical research. Common methodological characteristics include a research topic that addresses past events, review of primary and secondary data, techniques of criticism for historical searches and evaluation of the information, and synthesis and explanation of findings. Historical studies attempt to provide information and understanding of past historical, legal, and policy events. They provide a systematic approach to the process of historical research.

Define the problem, asking pertinent questions such as: Is the historical method appropriate? Are pertinent data available? Will the findings be significant in the leisure services field? Develop the research hypothesis if necessary and research objectives to provide a framework for the conduct of the research. Research questions focus on events who, what, when, where , how an event occurred descriptive , and why the event happened interpretive.

This contrasts with quantitative studies, in which the researcher is testing hypotheses and trying to determine the significance between scores for experimental and control groups or the relationships between variable x and variable y. Collect the data, which consists of taking copious notes and organizing the data. The researcher should code topics and subtopics in order to arrange and file the data.

Concepts are clarified by de- scribing the essential and core concepts beginning from the early developmental stages. Clarification allows other researchers to explore the topic in other fashions. Editing or compilation of documents, to preserve documents in chronological order to explain events. For ex- ample, an edition of Butler's park standards, the National Recreation and Park Association's first minutes, or letters from early pioneers in the field preserves the documents for future researchers.

Descriptive narration tells the story from beginning to end in chronological order, utilizing limited generalizations and synthesized facts. Interpretive analysis relates one event to another event. The event is studied and described within a broader con- text to add meaning and credibility to the data. For example, an examination of the development of a local jurisdiction's ability to dedicate land for parks may be related to the urbanization and loss of open space in our communities.

Comparative analysis examines similarities and differences in events during different time periods-for example, the budget-cutting priorities and procedures of the Proposition 13 era of the early s in parks and recreation as compared to the budget-cutting priorities and procedures of today.

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Data collection methods can be divided into two categories: secondary methods of data collection and primary methods of data collection. Secondary Data Collection Methods. Secondary data is a type of data that has already been published in books, newspapers, magazines, journals, online portals etc.

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The secondary data are readily available from the other sources and as such, there are no specific collection methods. The researcher can obtain data from the sources both internal and external to .

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Video: Secondary Data in Marketing Research: Definition, Sources & Collection Marketing research requires data, and secondary data is often the most convenient and cost-effective option. that secondary data analysis is a viable method to utilize in the process of inquiry when a systematic procedure is followed and presents an illustrative research application utilizing secondary data analysis in library and information science research.

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DATA COLLECTION PRIMARY & SECONDARY PRESENTATION BY: Amogh Kadam Rizwan Shaikh Prathmesh Parab Primary Research Methods & Techniques Primary Research Quantitative Data Surveys Qualitative Data Experiments Personal interview (intercepts) Mail In-house, selfadministered Telephone, fax, e-mail, Web Mechanical observation Simulation Focus. Most research requires the collection of primary data (data that you collect at first hand), and this is what students concentrate on. Unfortunately, many research reports do not include secondary data in their findings section although it is perfectly acceptable to do so, providing you have analyzed it.